Philadelphia Orchestra Musicians: A Chronological Listing
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A Chronological Listing
of the Principal Musicians of the Philadelphia Orchestra
with Biographical Remarks
Standing: Ferdinand Del Negro, bassoon, Marcel Tabuteau, oboe,
Anton Horner, horn
Seated: Rufus Arey, clarinet, William Kincaid, flute in 1923
(photo: Rembrandt Studio, Philadelphia circa 1923)
Music Director Eugene Ormandy addressing the Philadelphia Orchestra musicians
"Relax. Don't be nervous. My God, it's the
Philadelphia Orchestra !"
This website has two listings of musicians of the great Philadelphia
- A listing of all the Musicians of the Philadelphia Orchestra
1900-today. This list includes the names, country and date of birth and
death, instruments, positions and dates of service of all permanent
Philadelphia Orchestra musicians. To go to this list of all
Philadelphia musicians, click:
Philadelphia Orchestra Musicians List
- A listing of the Principal Musicians of the Philadelphia
Orchestra covering the Principal, or first chair musicians,
with short biographical notes and photographs. This listing
is the subject of this webpage, shown below.
A Listing of Philadelphia Orchestra PRINCIPAL Musicians
This page of the www.stokowski.org site seeks to list all the Principal,
or first-chair musicians of the Philadelphia Orchestra since its inception
in 1900. The principal conductors or Music Directors of the Philadelphia
Orchestra are also featured. With each musician, I have tried to reconstruct
a short biography and to include a photograph of the musician. In the
case of Rudolph Hennig, the Orchestra's first Principal cello, we even have the
pleasure of the famous Thomas Eakins painting The Cellist showing Hennig
practicing in 1896.
A Listing of ALL Philadelphia Orchestra Musicians
This is intended to be a complete listing of all of the permanent
musicians of the Philadelphia Orchestra since its creation in 1900.
To see this listing of ALL the Philadelphia Orchestra musicians,
click on the link:
Philadelphia Orchestra Musicians List.
Please have a look at these listings, and in case of any
corrections or other information,
please contact me, at the link below.
Music Directors of the Philadelphia Orchestra
1900-1907 Fritz Scheel (Johann Friedrich Ludwig Scheel)
Fritz Scheel in California, 1904
Fritz Scheel was born in Falkenberg, near Lübeck in the north of
Germany about 50 km from the North Sea on November 7, 1852.
He came from a musical family, his father being conductor of
the symphony in Lübeck 69. At age 12, he began
violin study with Ferdinand David (1810-1873).
By age 17, he was Concertmaster of the orchestra at Bremerhaven,
Germany, about 100 km west of his birthplace. In 1884, after
some conducting experience in Bremerhaven, Fritz Scheel was
appointed Kappelmeister of the orchestra in Chemnitz (50 km
south of Leipzig), Germany, succeeding Hans Sitt 41
(1850-1922). In 1893, Fritz Scheel was engaged by the
impresario Dr. Florenz Ziegfeld (1867-1932) to conduct the
Trocadero Orchestra at the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition
69. In the winter of 1893, Fritz Scheel took an orchestra,
which he gave the name of Vienna Prater Orchestra to
San Francisco for a festival. This led Fritz Scheel to
organize concerts in San Francisco in 1894, 1895, 1896 and 1897.
From this exposure, in 1904, Scheel was later engaged to perform a series
of concerts in San Francisco, before the great earthquake, and before the
creation of the San Francisco Symphony in 1911. Scheel's San Francisco
orchestra then was of about 40 musicians 67. The concerts
were sufficiently successful for Scheel to come back for at lest six concert series
between 1893 and 1905. Fritz Scheel was also said to have admired the
climate of the San Francisco Bay area.
Fritz Scheel and his orchestra in San Francisco 1894
Meanwhile, after conducting in Philadelphia's Woodside
Park in 1900, Fritz Scheel was appointed to conduct the
newly created Philadelphia Orchestra for its first
season which began in November, 1900. Fritz Scheel was
successful in building an orchestra of quality, which performed
primarily the great Austro-German repertoire, rather than the
summer garden orchestra musical mixture previously offered in
Philadelphia. Scheel constantly recruited better players,
primarily in Germany, and engaged leading guest artists, such
as Richard Strauss, Fritz Kreisler, Felix Weingartner and Olga
Samaroff, future wife of Leopold Stokowski. In 1906 and 1907,
the mental condition of Fritz Scheel began to deteriorate. He
became progressively more irritable, and erratic. Frances Anne
Wister wrote: '...on one occasion, he had to be restrained from playing
five symphonies at one concert.' 63. Scheel then broke
down prior to a concert on February 8, 1907, and was described as being
'a nervous wreck' 68. Scheel was taken by his doctor
for a rest at the Atlantic City resort, but did not improve. He
suffered from sleeplessness, and died the next month in Philadelphia on
March 13, 1907, of what was described as 'paresis' or paralysis, age only
54. Contemporary critics found Fritz Scheel's conducting to
be dramatic, but not romantic. Scheel seems to have been
closer to the precision and straightforward interpretation of a
Weingartner, than to the romantic interpretation of, for example, Hans
An often-told Fritz Scheel story: It is said that Fritz
Scheel enjoyed slang, and attempted to include slang expressions in
his speech. One expression which particularly struck him was
'...out of sight !', a reference to something very good.
One morning, one of the Orchestra Board members saw Scheel
and greeted him: 'Maestro, good morning ! and how are you ?'.
Scheel answered: 'You don't see me !'
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Karl Pohlig was born in Teplitz, Bohemia, now in the West of the Czech
Republic on February 10, 1864. Karl Pohlig studied cello and piano
in Weimar, Germany in the 1880s. In 1907, he was conductor of the
Royal Court Orchestra in Stuttgart. Upon recommendations by Felix
Mottl (1856-1911) of Berlin and Fritz Steinbach (1855-1916) of Cologne,
Pohlig was hired by the Philadelphia Orchestra Association board in the
Summer of 1907 91. When Karl Pohlig became Music Director
of the Philadelphia Orchestra, he was able to gain commitment to a minimum
orchestral complement of 80 players, rather than the 60-65 under Fritz
Scheel previously. To this minimum complement would be
added further hired players for works such as Berlioz. Although reviews
of Pohlig concerts were at first satisfactory, they quickly became critical.
Pohlig did have some success in expanding the repertoire of the orchestra, and
in inviting Serge Rachmaninoff to guest-conduct the Philadelphia Orchestra in
1909, the beginning of a long relationship. However, the public and the
musicians began to turn against Pohlig. The Orchestra is said to have
found Pohlig to be abrasive and aloof (not unique among conductors).
Olga Samaroff, a soloist with Pohlig found his conducting to be 'earthbound and
uninspired' 92. Further, Pohlig and the Philadelphia
Orchestra were ridiculed with faint praise and later with hostility by the New
York City critics 91. This, and the revelation that
Pohlig had had an extra-marital affair with his secretary finished Pohlig's
career in Philadelphia. He was dismissed, but later paid his salary
for the 1912-1913 season, as a way to ease his departure. Karl Pohlig then
returned to Germany, where he became Music Director of the Braunschweig Court
Opera in Brunswick in Lower Saxony, Germany, where he died on June 17, 1928.
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1912-1938 Leopold Stokowski
For a brief biography of Leopold Stokowski, please click on the
A biography of Leopold Stokowski
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Eugene Ormandy was born in Budapest, Hungary on November 18, 1899,
as Jenö Blau. He was precocious musically, and took up the violin
from an early age. He studied at the Royal National Academy
of Music (later, the Franz Liszt Academy of Music) in Budapest, where
he studied music interpretation with Leo Weiner (1885-1960), and violin
with Jenö Hubay (1858-1937 and teacher of Josef Szigeti and Eddy Brown),
and for whom Jenö Blau/Eugene Ormandy had been named 84.
Ormandy's father wanted Eugene to be a famous child violinist.
In 1913, Ormandy graduated from the Academy, and in 1916, earned
his 'musician violinist' diploma. Ormandy then toured Germany
and Hungary in 1917 with the Blüthner Orchestra 83.
During 1920-1921, Ormandy toured Austria and France, and was featured
under the name "Jenö B. Ormandy" 83. There are
conflicting stories as to the choice of "Ormandy", and the
conductor did not later explain. (I have never seen documentation
of the often-repeated account that his mother's maiden name was "Rosalie
Ormandy", which seems to be repeated from one writer to another
without recourse to source documents.) In December, 1921, Ormandy
came to the U.S. for a concert tour, anglicizing his name on the way to
Eugene (the equivalent of " Jenö ") Ormandy.
Upon arrival, he found the concert tour had not been organized.
Jobless, he auditioned for fellow Hungarian Erno Rapée (1891-1945),
conductor of the Capital Theater orchestra, one of the leading New
York City movie theaters. Ormandy was hired as a second violinist,
and quickly was moved up to Concertmaster. Then, beginning in
1924, Ormandy also began to conduct the theater orchestra. This
conducting experience led Ormandy to become a staff conductor of CBS
radio in New York City in the late 1920s. During this period,
1923-1929, Ormandy also made 16 recordings as a violinist.
During the first week of November, 1931, by good fortune, and the
aid of his manager Arthur Judson, Ormandy conducted the Philadelphia
Orchestra, replacing an indisposed Arturo Toscanini. The success
of this engagement led immediately (within one week) to Ormandy
being engaged as Music Director of the Minneapolis Symphony. Ormandy
was to succeed Henri Verbrugghen, who had just suffered a stroke
83. Eugene Ormandy was Music Director 1931–1936,
improving the Minneapolis Orchestra's reputation, and making a series
of critically appreciated recordings in 1934 and 1935. These
recordings were aided financially by the fact that, due to the wording
of their contracts, Minneapolis musicians were paid their normal salaries,
but without royalties or other payments from recording. During that
period, Ormandy and Minnesota were probably the most recorded orchestra in
the United States. The recordings added greatly to Ormandy's
reputation, and he guest-conducted in Philadelphia each season
1931-1935. In 1936, Ormandy was appointed co-conductor
of the Philadelphia Orchestra with Stokowski, when it became apparent
that Stokowski was determined to leave. This was announced January
2, 1936 81, with Ormandy conducting 26 weeks, and Stokowski
6 weeks 82. This began the longest tenure of a Music
Director of a major U.S. orchestra, 44 years, 1936-1980. During his
tenure, Ormandy demonstrated excellent musical memory, and a broad repertoire,
including extensive contemporary music. He was particularly inspired
in his many performances of Shostakovich, including during a visit of the
composer to Philadelphia in 1960.
Ormandy continued the rich strings
and legato style that has been called the 'Philadelphia Sound'. Ormandy
was also criticized by some as lacking the ultimate spark of inspiration, and
of being "the best of the second-rank conductors". Having attended over
60 Ormandy concerts, I know this faint praise not to be true. Ormandy's
excellence in music from Schubert through Nielsen, to Rachmaninoff, to Hindemith,
his many premieres of American composers, and his premieres of the works of
Shostakovich demonstrated this (showing great understanding and insight with
recordings that remain among the best today).
His performances showed depth and genius, and in a contrast, for
example to Stokowski, Ormandy's musical partnership with many and diverse
soloists in concerti was consistently excellent. The many Ormandy -
Philadelphia Orchestra recordings will allow the listener to judge Ormandy's
music-making directly. Ormandy was also
a man of character and integrity, and although demanding, was not the martinet
which was the working manner of many other conductors of that era, such as
Reiner (all the time) or Rodzinski (sometimes). Ormandy at the end of his
career gave careful thought also to what we would call today 'succession planning',
hand-picking the young Riccardo Muti to be his successor in 1980.
Eugene Ormandy died in Philadelphia in March, 1985, greatly admired and
respected by his musicians and audience.
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1980-1992 Riccardo Muti
Riccardo Muti was born in Naples, Italy on July 28, 1941.
Muti studied piano at the Conservatory 'San Pietro a Maiella', Naples
under Vincenzo Vitale (1908-1984). Later, Muti studied composition
and conduction under Bruno Bettinelli (1913-2004) and Antonino Votto
(1896-1985) at the Milan Conservatory. In 1967, Riccardo Muti
won the first ranking at the Guido Cantelli conducting competition
in Milan. Beginning 1968, and until 1980, Muti was Principal
Conductor and Director of the annual opera festival at the Maggio Musicale
Fiorentino. His growing prominence led to an invitation from Herbert
von Karajan in the Summer of 1971 for Muti to conduct at the Salzburg
Festival. Thereafter, Muti was a regular conductor of this Festival.
From 1972-1980, Muti was first Principal Conductor, and then Music
Director of the Philharmonia Orchestra, London 85. On
October 27, 1972, Muti also made his first appearance with the Philadelphia
Orchestra, invited by Eugene Ormandy who had heard Muti rehearsing in
Florence 89. Then, upon the retirement of
Eugene Ormandy, Music became Music Director of the Philadelphia
Orchestra 1980-1992. 1986-2005 Muti was Music Director of the
Teatro alla Scala, Milan. In the 1990s and 2000s, Riccardo Muti
was a regular conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic and of the Vienna
Philharmonic. In fact, it was frequently rumored in 2002 that Muti
would become the Music Director of the Berlin Philharmonic, following Claudio
Abbado, rather than Sir Simon Rattle who was appointed. Similar
speculation took place before Abbado's surprise Berlin appointment
in 1989 87. Muti has led the Vienna Philharmonic in
1996 on a Asian tour to to Japan, Korea, and Hong Kong. Muti has
also conducted the Vienna Philharmonic New Year's concert at least 4
times. Opera politics around the world seem difficult, and apparently
also at La Scala, Milan. In March, 2005 the staff of La Scala voted
to call for Riccardo Muti's departure. This was after a long-time
rift between Muti and La Scala's administrative director 88.
Of course, this has been written about many times, so further comment
here is superfluous. After departing La Scala in 2005, Muti was a
regular guest conductor of virtually every leading world orchestra.
In May, 2008, the Chicago Symphony announced that Riccardo Muti would
become Music Director in the 2010-2011 season 86.
In late 2009 Muti was also appointed Music Director of Rome Opera.
A joke concerning Muti: Riccardo Muti programmed a mixture of music,
familiar and unfamiliar, at least as rich as Stokowski or Ormandy. However,
apparently some in Philadelphia did not approve. A Philadelphia joke was
that when maestro Muti declined the offer to be Music Director of the New York
Philharmonic "...he deprived the Big Apple of a decade of the music of
Update: It seems the Martucci story continues: On the 2011 Chicago
Symphony European tour, Chicago Tribune reporter Mark Caro wrote about
the Lucerne concert 172: "...when musicians arrived,
they found a curve ball in the schedule: Instead of the Verdi,
they’d be rehearsing a piece that
many (if not most) of them didn’t know: Giuseppe Martucci’s
Nocturne opus 70, no 1. Muti explained to the musicians
and guests...that Martucci was a superlative composer, conductor
and pianist of the late 19th and early 20th Centuries whose work
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photo: Philadelphia Orchestra, Chris Lee, n.d.
Wolfgang Sawallisch was born on August 26, 1923 in Munich, Germany.
He studied at the Wittelsbaucher High School of Music, and then at the
Munich Conservatory 126, where he graduated with a diploma
in conducting just after World War 2. In the German tradition,
Sawallisch began his conducting experience at a provincial theater:
the opera house in Augsburg (southwest Bavaria) in 1947. In Augsberg
he was a coach and conductor, later becoming principal conductor. In
the summers of 1952 and 1953, Sawallisch was assistant to Igor Markevich at
the Mozarteum International Summer Academy in Salzburg, Austria. In
1953, age only 20, Sawallisch conducted the Berlin Philharmonic.
Continuing his precocious conducting career, his debut at Bayreuth was in
1957, just before his 24th birthday in Tristan und Isolde. For ten
seasons, 1960-1970, Wolfgang Sawallisch was Principal Conductor of the
Wiener Symphoniker, which he took on tour in the United States in 1964
and in Japan in 1967. After Vienna, from 1971-1992, Wolfgang Sawallisch
was Music Director of the Bavarian State Opera in his home town of Munich.
Phyllis White Rodríguez-Peralta in her fine book on Philadelphia
Orchestra conductors 126 writes: '...Riccardo Muti's unexpected
resignation left the Philadelphia Orchestra in the unusual position of
scrambling to find a music director in a relatively short period of time...'
At age 70, Wolfgang Sawallisch was selected to succeeded Riccardo Muti
as Music Director of the Philadelphia Orchestra. Although some thought
of Sawallisch as an interim director (because of age), he lead the
Orchestra with success for seven seasons, 1993-2003.
As a tribute to his tenure, the Associated Press commented at the time
of his retirement from Philadelphia: '...Sawallisch, 79, has hired about
one-third of the orchestra's current musicians [note: he hired 40 musicians
during his tenure], renewed the velvety Philadelphia
Sound and survived a long-delayed move to a new concert hall in the $265
million Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts...'125.
This 'velvety' comment refers to the general opinion that Riccardo Muti had
replaced the lush 'Philadelphia Sound' of Stokowski and Ormandy with a more
clinical and precise sound, not necessarily to the Orchestra's benefit in
the opinion of many. After Philadelphia, Sawallisch toured as a guest
conductor of the world's leading orchestras. However, in 2006, he
announced his retirement due to periodic occurrences of low blood
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Christoph Eschenbach was born in Breslau, Prussia, some 100 km east of Dresden
(now Wroclaw, Poland) (where Walter Damrosch was also born) on February 20,
1940. Eschenbach lost both parents during World War 2; his mother in
giving birth to Christoph, and his father in a punishment battalion in the
German army. Christoph Eschenbach writes in his website: '...on January
31, 1946, marked by disease and death, my constant companions, I was released
from the first five dark years of my childhood by Wallydore Eschenbach, my
mother's cousin and my future adoptive mother. It was during the ensuing
long year of my convalescence, a time in which my harrowing past robbed me
of my power to speak, that I heard music for the first time. Wallydore
Eschenbach, a pianist, singer and music teacher, played Beethoven,
Schubert, Chopin, Rachmaninoff and Bach until the late hours of the
night...' 127. After piano study with his stepmother,
Wallydore Eschenbach, Christoph entered the Hochschule für Musik Köln in
1955, where he studied piano with Hans-Otto Schmidt-Neuhaus (also teacher
of Karlheinz Stockhausen, and many others). Christoph Eschenbach's
first musical fame came as a pianist, particularly when he won the
Clara Haskil competition in Montreux in 1965. Further fame came
from Christoph Eschenbach's many recordings for Deutsche Grammophone
in classical (noted Mozart interpretations) and modern works (including
a great Hans Werner Henze Piano Concerto no 2). During the 1970s,
Christoph Eschenbach turned more and more to conducting. He studied
conducting with George Szell for three years. He also regards
Herbert von Karajan as a conducting mentor. Christoph Eschenbach
was Chief Conductor of the Tonhalle Orchestra, Zurich 1982-1986.
He was a very successful Music Director of the Houston Symphony for 11
seasons 1988-1999. He was during much of this period
each summer also Music Director of the Ravinia Festival in Chicago
1994-2003. 1999-2002, Eschenbach was Artistic Director of the
Schleswig-Holstein Music Festival, another summer festival held in
three cities of northern Germany. In 2000, Christoph Eschenbach
was named Music Director of L'Orchestre de Paris, where he stayed
for 10 seasons. In the late 1990s, Wolfgang Sawallisch had indicated
to the Philadelphia Orchestra Board that he wished to retire whenever
his successor could be identified. Simon Rattle was approached, as
was Christoph Eschenbach, and in 2001, Eschenbach was named to be
Sawallisch's successor, beginning in the 2003-2004 season
126. Christoph Eschenbach was Music Director of
the Philadelphia Orchestra for 5 seasons, 2003-2008 Also,
after departing, in January and February, 2009, Christoph
Eschenbach took the Philadelphia Orchestra on a three week tour
of Europe. In 1910-1911 season, Christoph takes up the
Music Director position of the National Symphony Orchestra
of Washington, D.C.
2008-present Charles Édouard Dutoit
Charles Dutoit with Concertmaster David Kim in 2010
Charles Dutoit was born in Lausanne, Switzerland on October 7, 1936.
Dutoit gained admission to the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, where he
studied violin and conducting. He then went on to the Accademia Musicale
Chigiana in Siena, Italy where he studied conducting with Alceo Galliera
(1910-1996), graduating in 1958. During the next two years, Dutoit played
viola in a number of regional orchestras. He continued to conduct as a
guest of l'Orchestre de la Suisse Romande and the Lausanne Chamber Orchestra.
Charles Dutoit was a conductor for Swiss Radio 1964-1966. He also conducted
for the ballet at the Vienna Opera 1965-1967. In a progression somewhat like
the traditional German training of conductors, Charles Dutoit continued to conduct
regional orchestras. Dutoit succeeded Paul Kletzki as conductor of the Bern
Symphony 1968-1978. He also became Music Director of Orquesta Sinfónica
Nacional de México 1973-1975. During 1975-1978 Charles Dutoit became
conductor of the Göteborgs Symfoniker in Sweden. This was followed by what
was the most famous appointment of the first part of his career, with his
invitation to become conductor in Montréal, Canada. Charles Dutoit was
Artistic Director of the Orchestre symphonique de Montréal 1977-2002.
This was a highly successful period in which the Montréal orchestra's level
of playing and a rich income stream from Dutoit's recordings with the orchestra
reached new levels and provided prosperity to the orchestra.
However, it was also sometimes a stormy relationship, particularly in the
last years, when the orchestra musicians said that they resented what they
felt was harsh treatment. In April, 2002, the musicians complained
to their union. Consequently, on April 11, 2002 Charles Dutoit
resigned prior to what would have been his twenty-fifth season in Montréal.
Speaking recently with Philadelphia Orchestra members, including some who have
know Charles Dutoit for a number of years, it seems that Philadelphia
Orchestra musicians have greatly appreciated, respected and valued the
leadership of Charles Dutoit as well as expressing their appreciation of
his unique qualities. This is perhaps in contrast with some
of the turbulance which Montréal musicians manifested during the stormy
last years of Dutoit music direction.
Charles Dutoit's relationship with the Philadelphia Orchestra
over the years has been was extensive. From 1990-1999,
he was Music Director of
Philadelphia summer concerts at the Mann Center for the Performing Arts in
suburban Philadelphia. Then, following the resignation of Christoph
Eschenbach as Philadelphia Music Director, in February 2007 came the good
news that Charles Dutoit had agreed to become Chief Conductor and
Artistic Adviser for the Philadelphia Orchestra for a four season term
2008-2012. This gave the Orchestra the stability of Dutoit's leadership
and musicianship which has provided excellence during the transition to
Yannick Nézet-Séguin in the 2012-2013 season While performing in
Philadelphia, Charles Dutoit also assumed responsibilities as Principal Conductor
and Artistic Director of the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra - London.
Listening to Charles Dutoit and the Philadelphia Orchestra, a satisfying
conclusion is that they consistently make beautiful music together
at the highest levels.
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designated for 2012
Yannick Nézet-Séguin was born in Montreal, Québec in 1975. Nézet-Séguin
studied at the Conservatoire de Musique du Québec in Montreal.
Yannick Nézet-Séguin has been selected to become Music Director of the Philadelphia
Orchestra beginning in the 2012-2013 season.  His contract is for five
years. Prior to 2012, Yannick Nézet-Séguin will guest-conduct the Philadelphia
Orchestra with a title of 'Music Director Designate'.
The Germania Orchestra and Origins of the Philadelphia Orchestra
The roots of the Philadelphia Orchestra can be traced to fifty years before its
founding in 1900. This was with the visits of the Germania Musical Association
Orchestra, the first U.S. orchestra which we would regard as being 'professional',
even if they often failed to make a professional living from being musicians of
this orchestra. The Germania Orchestra was a touring group of 24 musicians,
all of whom were trained in Germany, who toured the eastern U.S. in 1848 and 1849,
playing symphonic music. These German musicians, encouraged it is said by the
European unrest of 1848, banded together with the determination to go to the U.S.
and perform as a professional orchestra. In 1848, the Germania musicians voyaged
to London and then to New York City 74. Their first concert was in
New York City on October 5, 1848 71, followed by 20 more concerts in New
York and Brooklyn. In January, 1849, the Germania Orchestra played in Philadelphia,
again with critical praise, but financial losses 74. As and example, the
Germania Orchestra regularly played the Scherzo from Mendelssohn's A Midsummer's Night
Dream Overture which was received enthusiastically by the audiences. To put this
into context, consider that Mendelssohn had only died about 18 months prior to this
In many ways, the Germania Orchestra was a revelation, since orchestra playing in the U.S.
at that time - certainly playing at a professional level - could be said to barely exist.
In contrast, the Germania Orchestra was comprised of able musicians, playing
together in ensemble, with a thorough understanding of the music. In spite of
these advantages, the reception in Boston, New York and Philadelphia did not fund
their growth. The Germania Musical Association continued, in a struggling
way for some five years, mostly under the direction of Carl Bergmann 71.
Germania Orchestra in 1850 (left to right, with some guesses) Carl Zerrahn
(at left with flute), G. Hoffitz, Charles M. Schmitz (violin), Ferdinand Thiede (bassoon),
Karl Meisel (violin), W. Balke (bass), William (Wilhelm) Bucheister (viola),
H. Luhde (cello), Charles Bartels (bass), William (Wilhelm Heinrich)
Schultze (violin), Carl Bergmann (conductor and cello), W. Brandt (violin),
C. Stein (violin), Theodore Thomas (violin), Carl Sentz (violin), W. Meier (oboe),
Christoph Plagemann (horn), Henry L. Albrecht (viola), Henry (Heinrich) Ahner
(trumpet), M. Moritz (trumpet), H. Küstenmacher (horn).
After the original Germania Musical Association Orchestra disbanded, due to
lack of finances, in 1856, a local Philadelphia orchestra was organized and
again adopted the Germania Orchestra name 72. In the
1884 book by William Mactier, Sketch of the Musical Fund Society of
Philadelphia 77, this creation is described:
"...Carl Sentz was the director of the Germania Orchestra, begun in
1856, incorporated in 1860 and disbanded in 1895. About one half its
members continued playing in the Henry Thunder Orchestra, all of which was
incorporated into the Philadelphia Orchestra. Sentz came to this
country as a drummer with the Steiermarkisches Orchestra..."
72. [note: The last sentence may be incorrect; Carl Sentz
seems not to have arrived with the Steyermark Orchestra, which did tour the
U.S. beginning in 1846 75, but rather to have arrived with the 24
musicians who sailed to New York City in September, 1848, and who formed the
Germania Orchestra 74.]
The Germania Orchestra of Philadelphia continued active in the
1880s. During this period, there were other orchestras
around the country which adopted the 'Germania Orchestra' name, but,
other than Boston, the only group having direct membership from
the original 1848 Germania Musical Association Orchestra, with the
musicians who sailed from Europe in 1848 was the orchestra based
To read more about this interesting, pioneering group of musicians
in the United States orchestra development, please
click on this link to The Germania Orchestra.
Principal Musicians of the Philadelphia Orchestra
Titles of Musicians: Today, except for the Concertmaster (sometimes
called the 'Leader' in Europe), the usual title for the first or leading
instrument of an orchestral section is 'Principal', as in 'Principal Flute'.
However, in earlier years and in some orchestra sections, the first-chair
musician may have been referred to as 'Solo', or 'First'. For example, the
Philadelphia Orchestra used the title of 'Solo Trumpet' until 1986 when Frank
Kaderabek first was given the title of 'Principal Trumpet' 3.
In the profiles below, for consistency and clarity, I usually use the
title 'Principal', even if the title was not yet used at that
time. (Note: If you are interested in the pay and the
working conditions of the musicians of the Philadelphia Orchestra
over the last century, please click on the link:
Pay and Working Conditions of the Philadelphia Orchestra
Charles Dutoit and the Philadelphia Orchestra in Shanghai, May 2010
Concertmasters of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1
As one would expect, the Philadelphia Orchestra has had a succession of great
and gifted violists as Concertmaster over the last 100+ years.
Fritz Scheel, the first conductor of the Philadelphia Orchestra
was himself previously a Concertmaster2. He seems to have been
demanding, having gone through five Concertmasters in six seasons.
However, the later careers of the first four Concertmasters, seeming to lack
later distinction, seems to verify that they were not among the leading violinists of
Then, in 1904 Scheel appointed Michael Svedrofsky, a distinguished figure.
And further, two years later in the 1906-1907 season, Scheel engaged Thaddeus Rich
as Concertmaster. This was most successful, Rich remaining
Concertmaster for the next twenty seasons, under Fritz Scheel, Carl Pohlig,
and Leopold Stokowski.
However, during his 29 years with the Philadelphia Orchestra, Leopold Stokowski
did not have a felicitous relationship with his lead violists. As Anne
Mischakoff Heiles says in her great book America's Concertmasters
2, "...Probably no conductor made less use of his Concertmasters
or did more to undermine their authority than Stokowski..." The
story of the Philadelphia Orchestra's Concertmasters and their relationship
with Stokowski suggests that Stokowski would tolerate no performing star other
than himself. Both Thaddeus Rich, and the brilliant Mischa Mischakoff
(father of Anne Mischakoff Heiles) are examples of this.
In March 1929, Mischa Mischakoff left the Philadelphia Orchestra follow a
disagreement with Stokowski (see
Mischakoff and Dubinsky Quit the Philadelphia Orchestra
). After Mischakoff resigned from the orchestra, Stokowski took
the unusual step of not appointing a new Concertmaster. Instead, he
decided to have all the first violins rotate alphabetically through the first
Consequently, there was no Concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra from 1929
until 1935, when Eugene Ormandy took over and selected Alexander Hilsberg to be
Concertmaster, a post Hilsberg held for another 16 seasons.
Looking at this history of Stokowski and Concertmasters, it seems to me similar
to Stokowski's antipathy to instrumental soloists who perhaps might steal the
spotlight from Stokowski's own contribution. You can read about
this Stokowski's relationship with soloist, including the great such as Serge
Rachmaninoff and Jascha Heifetz by clicking on
Stokowski and Soloists
' in this stokowski.org web site.
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Carl Doell (or Döll), the first Concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra
was born in Saxony, Germany in 1871. He had studied at the Akademische
Hochschule für Musik in Berlin 159. He emigrated to the U.S.
in 1899, where he joined the faculty of the Philadelphia Musical Academy
159. Fritz Scheel appointed Carl Doell
to join the Philadelphia Orchestra as its first Concertmaster in the
1900-1901 season. After leaving the Orchestra in 1901, Carl Doell
became a violin teacher at the Philadelphia Conservatory of Music in
1902. In 1904, Doell married Ottilie Collins, when she was 19,
and he was 34. Doell was later a musician and teacher in
Springfield Township, Pennsylvania (a suburb of Philadelphia), living with
Ottilie and his father-in-law. By 1920, Carl Doell, Ottille and
two sons had moved to Atlantic City, New Jersey, a
seaside resort town where Carl was a violinist in a theater orchestra
(most likely for silent films, a large employer of musicians in that era).
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Elkan Kosman was a Dutch violinist born in Rotterdam in about 1871, where,
like his Principal viola colleague
he studied violin. In the 1890s in England, Elkan Kosman built a career
as a violin soloist. Kosman also toured in France, Belgium and the
Netherlands prior to coming to the U.S. in 1901.
In March, 1894, Elkan Kosman received warm reviews in Manchester, England
as a violin soloist with the Hallé Orchestra under Sir Charles Hallé:
"...M. Elkan Kosman, the frequency of whose appearances in London has
hitherto not been in proportion to his merit, was heard to signal
advantage in Mendelssohn's violin concerto, which he played with the
utmost refinement and dexterity. Later on in the afternoon he gave
an excellent rendering of Saint-Saens's charming Introduction and
Rondo Capriccioso..." 122. Kosman continued to play
provincial concerts in the UK in 1894 through 1899, in lesser venues,
but does not seem to have reached the first level of concert
bookings during this period 123.
At this time, Kosman seems to have lived in Lanarkshire, Scotland.
Elkan Kosman was Concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the
second season, 1901-1902. He also organized the Kosman String
Quartet: Elkan Kosman first, Edwin Brill second,
cello. Elkan Kosman played a 1779 Guadagnini
violin. Elkan Kosman was one of five Concertmasters which
Fritz Scheel went through prior to hiring the great Thaddeus Rich.
Kosman was not rehired in 1902, and after leaving the Philadelphia
Orchestra, he had a solo career for a time in New York. He
also played in chamber music groups. In the next decade,
Kosman accompanied singers and performed in salon groups
in New York City. His reviews in New York as a soloist were mixed
62, and he did not succeed in breaking into the highly
competitive areana as successful solo virtuoso. Elkan Kosman
seems to have returned to Europe before World War 1.
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1902-1903 John Marquardt
Poor quality newspaper photo of John Marquardt, 1914
John (or Johann) Marquardt was born in Esselbrugge, Germany (near Hannover)
October 16, 1859. He studied violin at the Akademische Hochschule für
Musik in Berlin with Émile Sauret (1852-1920) in the late 1870s 124.
John Marquardt came to the U.S. in May, 1886 to play violin in
the Boston Symphony Orchestra in the 1886-1887 season, where he remained
until 1889. In 1889, Marquardt joined A. Reinhardt, Julius Hermann,
and Charles Heydler in the Philharmonic String Quartet, based in Cleveland
32. He was a first violin of the Theodore Thomas Orchestra in
Chicago in the 1892-1893 season. He moved to New York City in 1893,
where he became first violin at the Philharmonic Club, a chamber music
ensemble. In 1895, he moved to San Francisco where he lived much
of the time over the next ten years. It may be that Marquardt met
Fritz Scheel at that time, when Scheel was organizing orchestral concerts
in San Francisco. Marquardt concertized in California with his
harpist wife, Alexandra Breitschuch-Marquardt during the next decade.
In San Francisco, he taught violin from 1900-1902.
He also was solo violin at San Francisco's Tivoli Opera House
33. John Marquardt joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as
Concertmaster for the 1902-1903 season, with Hugo Olk as Assistant
Concertmaster150. After one season with the Philadelphia
Orchestra, John Marquardt then returned to San Francisco in about
1904, where he remained until moving back to
New York City in 1910. In 1914, Marquardt was the conductor of
a theater orchestra in Salt Lake City. Beginning in about 1916,
Marquardt lived in New York City and played in chamber work concerts,
and at Venice Beach, Long Island, a popular location for summer
concerts. In 1895 and in 1912, Marquardt toured Australia and
Hawaii with his wife Alexandra. He also taught briefly at the
Cleveland Conservatory of Music 31. By 1920, he
relocated to the Los Angeles area where he lived in Pasadena teaching
violin at least until the late 1930s.
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Hugo O. Olk
Hugo Olk was born in Germany in 1868, and, like his Concertmaster predecessor
John Marquardt studied at the Berlin Akademische Hochschule für Musik.
Among other teachers, Olk studied with the great Joseph Joachim (1831-1907).
Hugo Olk played in the 1880s with the newly formed Helsinki
Orchestra Association conducted by the later famous conductor and friend
of Sibelius Robert Kajanus (1856-1933). Hugo Olk also played in the
Kroll Opera in Berlin 149. Olk was later Concertmaster of
the Kiev Symphony Orchestra 36 in the Ukraine. Olk relocated
to the U.S. in 1892. Hugo Olk played in the Ann Arbor May Festival in
1899 as part of the Summer orchestra, and in the Boston Festival Orchestra,
another summer orchestra organized by Boston musicians Emil Mollenhauer
(1855-1927) and George W. Stewart (1851-1940). Hugo Olk joined the
Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1902-1903 season as Assistant Concertmaster
150, sitting at the first stand with Concertmaster John Marquardt.
In the next season, 1903-1904, Hugo's older brother Gustav Olk (1862- )
joined the Philadelphia Orchestra viola section, and Hugo Olk became the fourth
Concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra. The next season, 1904-1905,
Hugo Olk, along with Gustav Olk went to the Cincinnati Symphony
under Frank Van der Stucken (1858-1929), with Hugo as Concertmaster for
two seasons, 1904-1906. Continuing his peripatetic career,
Hugo Olk was in the first violin section of the Chicago Symphony in
1906-1907. The Chicago Symphony records also show Olk as a
Concertmaster in 1908 (not 1907-1908 or 1908-1909), although this does
not seem to match with Olk's career in St. Louis, nor with the fact
that Leopold Kramer was the Chicago Concertmaster from 1897-1909.
Perhaps Olk was briefly Associate Concertmaster to Kramer in 1908,
similar to what he was with John Marquardt in Philadelphia
in the 1902-1903 season. Then during 1907-1917, Hugo Olk
served as Concertmaster of the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra,
under Max Zach (1864-1921). Olk was succeeded as Concertmaster
of the St. Louis Symphony in 1917 by Michel Gusikoff. However,
Hugo Olk remained with the St. Louis Symphony as first viola.
Subsequently, Hugo Olk was a violin teacher in Saint Louis
into the 1920s, and it is said that he continued to have a passion for
chess. Hugo Olk had a rich and varied career, and was a violinist
in a striking number of different symphony orchestras.
Hugo Olk died sometime after 1930, probably still living in St. Louis.
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1904-1906 Michael Svedrofsky
Michael Svedrofsky was born in Russia December 14, 1873. Svedrofsky studied
at the Saint Petersburg Imperial Conservatory 151.
He came to the U.S. in 1902 and became Concertmaster of the Russian Symphony Orchestra
of New York for the 1903-1904 season. Beginning with the 1904-1905 season,
Svedrofsky became Concertmaster of the Philadelphia for two seasons, 1904-1906.
After the Philadelphia Orchestra, Svedrofsky was third Concertmaster (third chair)
at the Metropolitan Opera in New York 1911-1922 and second Concertmaster 1923-1930.
Svedrofsky became a U.S. citizen in 1919. Michael Svedrofsky also played
in chamber music ensembles in the 1900s and 1910s in New York. Svedrofsky died
in August, 1936, age 62.
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1906-1926 Thaddeus G. Rich
Thaddeus Rich in spring, 1913 in Leopold Stokowski's first season with the Philadelphia
Thaddeus Rich was born in Indianapolis on March 21, 1885. In 1896,
he entered the Leipzig Conservatory, and upon graduation, joined the Gewandhaus
Orchestra in 1900, age only 16. He moved to Berlin in 1902 and studied with
Joachim, and also became Concertmaster at the Opera des Westens at age 19
132. Rich returned to the U.S. in 1905 and joined the
Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1906-1907 season. He was not only
Concertmaster, but starting in the 1920s was an assistant conductor of
the Philadelphia Orchestra. Thaddeus Rich was also founder of the
Thaddeus Rich first,
Harry Aleinikoff second,
Romain Verney viola and
Hans Kindler cello. Thaddeus Rich
left the Philadelphia Orchestra at the
end of the 1925-1926 season after a falling out with Stokowski. He then
became curator of the instrument collection of Rodman Wanamaker.
In the 1930s and 1940s he taught at Temple University, and was Dean of
Music for a time. He also conducted a WPA Orchestra in Philadelphia
as part of the New Deal program 131. He died in April 1969
in Hartford, Connecticut. Thaddeus Rich had a reasonably full career
after leaving the Philadelphia Orchestra at age 41, but did not again reach
the heights that his career in Europe, and then his twenty years with the
Philadelphia Orchestra would suggest would be his
future after the Philadelphia Orchestra.
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1926-1927 Michel Gusikoff
Michel Gusikoff in about 1920
Mishel, or Michel Gusikoff was born in May 15, 1893 in New York
City. His father Morris emigrated from Russia in 1891 and sons
Michel, Solomon and Benjamin all became musicians. Michel was a violin
student of Franz Kneisel who was Concertmaster of the Boston Symphony
Orchestra from 1885-1903 under Gericke, Nikisch and Paur. In 1915,
Michel Gusikoff became Concertmaster of the Russian Symphony in
New York. He left New York in 1917 to become the Concertmaster of
the St. Louis Symphony under Max Zach (1864-1921). Gusikoff
remained in St. Louis until the end of the 1925-1926 season.
Becoming Concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra for the 1926-1927
season, he joined his brother Benjamin "Benji" (1900-1956),
and also Charles Gusikoff Principal trombone (1897-1966) and Principal
(1901-1962) who were also Orchestra musicians. Michel and Benji
Gusikoff may be brothers of Charles and Isadore Gusikoff, but I have
not verified this. Arriving in Philadelphia in 1926, Mishel
Gusikoff was the first of a series of brief-service Concertmasters.
After serving in Philadelphia in 1926-1927, he seemed
not to find favor with Stokowski. Michel Gusikoff then assumed the
Concertmaster position in the New York Symphony for the 1927-1928.
This was the position vacated by Mischa Mischakoff, who became the
Philadelphia Concertmaster succeeding Gusikoff 9.
Gusikoff later became a successful session musician in
New York. Mishel Gusikoff died in New York City on July 10,
1978. Incidentally, Saul Caston's mother was also a Gusikoff, and
Milan Yancich (1921- ) was Gusikoff's wife's nephew 139.
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1927-1929 Mischa Mischakoff
[Note; the information in this mini-biography is sourced from the endlessly
fascinating and highly readable biography Mischa Mischakoff, Journeys
of a Concertmaster, written by Mischakoff's daughter, Anne Mischakoff
Heiles, who is also a violist and well-known university teacher. 90]
Mischa Mischakoff, perhaps the greatest Concertmaster of the Twentieth Century,
was born Mischa Isaakevich Fischberg in Proskurov, Ukraine (then part of Russia)
on April 16,1895. so, Mischakoff was part of the famous musical Fishberg
family, and Gusikoff family (his mother was Rose Gusikoff).
Also born in Proskurov, and a Fishberg was
. As a youth, Mischakoff first studied with Konstantin Konstantinovich
Gorsky (1859-1924). Entering about age 10, Mischakoff studied in at the
Imperial Conservatory in St. Petersburg with Sergei Korguyev (1863-1932),
an assistant to Leopold Auer 61. Upon graduation in 1912,
Mischakoff was a soloist with the Blüthner Orchestra in Berlin in April, 1913.
Then, in the 1913-1914 season, Mischakoff became Concertmaster of the St.
Petersburg Philharmonic. In 1917, after Russia withdrew from World War 1,
Mischakoff returned to the St. Petersburg, later Leningrad,
Philharmonic. Then, in 1920, he joined the Bolshoi Theatre
Orchestra, before moving in 1921 to become Concertmaster to the
Warsaw Philharmonic. On the last day of September, 1922, Mischakoff
arrived in the United States, landing in New York City. It was at
this time that, upon the recommendation of his manager, Mischa adopted the
name of Mischa Mischakoff. Mischa Mischakoff became solo violin in
the New York Stadium concerts. In October, 1924, he became Concertmaster
of the New York Symphony. He joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as
Concertmaster in 1927. He resigned from the Orchestra in 1929, described in
Mischakoff and Dubinsky Quit the Orchestra
. Mischakoff then became Concertmaster of the Chicago Symphony.
He was Concertmaster of the NBC Symphony under Toscanini. In summers during
the Chicago and NBC periods, Mischakoff was Concertmaster of the Chautauqua
Symphony Orchestra, a summer orchestra in up-state New York. After the NBC
Symphony, Mischakoff, who had a number of choices, including becoming Concertmaster
of the Philadelphia Orchestra under Ormandy moved to the Detroit Symphony for
financial security. Mischakoff moved to Southfield (suburban Detroit),
Michigan where he died on February 1, 1981.
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1935-1951 Alexander Hilsberg
Alexander Hilsberg in 1935
Alexander Hilsberg, was born in Warsaw, Poland on April 24, 1900.
He was a prodigy, giving his first recital at age nine 45.
Poland at that time was part of Russia, and Hilsberg studied violin with
Leopold Auer at the St. Petersburg Conservatory 1911-1912. In the
early 1920s, Hilsberg became a missionary in Manchuria, China, where he
met his wife Neya 43. He came to the U.S. in December,
1923 and became a U.S. citizen in 1929. Hilsberg joined the first
violin section of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1926-1927 season.
Hilsberg was active 1932-1934 with the Guarnerius Quartet with
his colleagues David Madison, second violin, Samuel Lifschey, viola,
and Willem van den Berg, cello. From 1929 until the end of the
1935-1936 season, after confrontations with two Concertmasters, Stokowski
had decided not to appoint a new Concertmaster. Then began a period
of 6 years when the Orchestra had rotating 'Concertmasters'
- musicians from the first violin section who sat in the Concertmaster
chair at the first stand. Then, in 1936, Eugene Ormandy appointed
Alexander Hilsberg as Concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra, 10 years after
Hilsberg joined the Orchestra. Hilsberg also pursued conducting, and became
an Associate conductor of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1940s.
As well as teaching at the Curtis Institute from 1936, Alexander Hilsberg
became conductor of the student orchestra 46. In
1946, at Carnegie Hall, Hilsberg conducted the Philadelphia Orchestra when
Eugene Ormandy became ill. He also conducted the Orchestra at Carnegie Hall
in 1948 44. Hilsberg guest conducted other orchestras in
the 1940s such as the Minneapolis Symphony. In the late 1940s, Hilsberg became
conductor of the semi-professional Reading (Pennsylvania) Orchestra.
In 1951, Hilsberg also conducted the NBC Symphony. Hilsberg left the
Philadelphia Orchestra at the end of the 1950-1951 season, to pursue his
conducting career. In May, 1952 became conductor of the New Orleans
Symphony.7 It is interesting that Hilsberg appointed
two future Philadelphia Orchestra Concertmasters to the New Orleans Symphony.
In the 1954-1955 season,
was Concertmaster, and in 1956-1957, Hilsberg appointed a young
as Concertmaster of the New Orleans Symphony 47.
Alexander Hilsberg remained Music Director of the New Orleans
Symphony until his death, which occurred in Camden, Maine on
August 10, 1961.
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1951-1958 Jacob Morris Krachmalnick
Jacob Krachmalnick was in born in Krisloff, then part of Russia
and now of the Ukraine on March 14, 1922, the
year his family emigrated to Saint Louis. He was older brother to
Samuel Krachmalnick (1926-2005), who became a well known Broadway
musical conductor, and who also conducted at the New York City Opera.
Jacob or "Jake" Krachmalnick took up the violin early, and he
and his brother Sam both played at concerts at the St. Louis YMHA in
the 1930s. Krachmalnick studied at the Curtis Institute 1936-1941,
studying with Efrem Zimbalist, among others and graduating
in the Class of 1941. At Tanglewood in 1942, he was coached
by BSO Concertmaster Richard Burgin. Krachmalnick returned
to St. Louis and played in the Symphony for several months,
before entering the Air Force during World War 2.
In May, 1946, Krachmalnick appeared with the National Orchestral
Association (orchestra for students). Beginning in the Autumn of
1946, and until 1951, Krachmalnick was assistant Concertmaster of
the Cleveland Orchestra, next to Concertmaster Josef Gingold.
The next season, Krachmalnick went to Philadelphia, where he was
Philadelphia Concertmaster from 1951-1958. He also performed
at the Casals festival in Prades in 1953. Krachmalnick suddenly left
the Philadelphia Orchestra before the end of the 1957-1958 season,
after a series of disagreements with Ormandy. David Madison, the
long-time Assistant Concermaster took over for the remainder of
the 1957-1958 season. Then 1958-1960, Jacob
Krachmalnick became Concertmaster of the Concertgebouw Orchestra
of Amsterdam under Eduard van Beinum. After van Beinum died,
Krachmalnick remained at the Concertgebouw two more seasons, and
then moved back to the U.S. On his return to the U.S., Krachmalnick
again become assistant Concertmaster of the Cleveland Orchestra
1960-1961 (this time next to Rafael Druian, Concertmaster) under
George Szell. Krachmalnick, in the Spring of 1961, was briefly
Concertmaster of the New York Philharmonic, replacing John
Corigliano, who did not want to fly on the New York Philharmonic's
tour of Japan. During this period, Krachmalnick was also a New
York sessions musician, making a number of recordings. In about
1963, Jacob Krachmalnick was briefly Concertmaster of the Dallas
Symphony under Donald Johanos. Jacob Krachmalnick then
moved to California and became
Concertmaster of the San Francisco Symphony
from 1964 to 1970 under Josef Krips. In 1976, he became Concertmaster
of the San Francisco Opera. Often, particularly in off-season from
1960 to the late 1980s, Krachmalnick did session recordings in Los Angeles,
Hollywood and San Francisco. In the late 1970s, he taught at UCLA,
and in the 1980s, Krachmalnick taught at the University of Michigan and
Indiana University. Krachmalnick had a full, rich violin tone,
and soloed with orchestras more often than many other Concertmasters.
Jake Krachmalnick was said by his colleagues to be a difficult leader of
the violins, given to harsh and sarcastic criticism of the first and second
violins. Krachmalnick also often had stormy relationships with each
orchestra in which he played. He died in Marin County (north of San Francisco)
California on August 31, 2001.
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1959-1966 Anshel Brusilow
Brusilow, standing, between Ormandy (hidden left) and Shostakovich (with
cigarette) at a 1960 Philadelphia Orchestra recording session
Anshel Brusilow was born Anshel Brusilovsky in Philadelphia on August 14,
1928. In 1939, Brusilow, age only 11, entered the Curtis Institute in
Philadelphia. Brusilow then then entered the Philadelphia Musical Academy,
studying under Jani Szanto. After graduation in 1947, Brusilow was a first place
winner at the Jacques Thibaud-Marguerite Long Violin Competition. Brusilow
then became Concertmaster of the New Orleans Symphony Orchestra under Alexander
Hilsberg during the 1954-1955 season. Brusilow then moved to become associate
Concertmaster of the Cleveland Orchestra for four seasons, 1955-1959 under
George Szell. Ansel Brusilow then moved to Philadelphia as Concertmaster
beginning in the 1959-1960 season. In 1961, Brusilow also founded the Chamber
Symphony of Philadelphia, which continued until 1965. As a result of a contract
dispute, which would have prevented him form continuing with his Chamber Symphony
of Philadelphia. Brusilow left the Philadelphia Orchestra at the end of the
1965-1966 season. Brusilow wished to pursue his conducting career. In the 1970-1971
season, Brusilow became conductor of the Dallas Symphony Orchestra, where he remained
three seasons. Anshel Brusilow also taught for more than thirty years at Texas
Universities. He taught 1973-1982 at the University of North Texas.
1982-1989 Brusilow taught at Southern Methodist University in Dallas. He returned
to the University of North Texas 1989-2008, when he retired. Beginning in 1992,
Brusilow became Music Director of the Richardson Symphony Orchestra in a suburb of
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1966-1994 Norman Carol
Norman Carol was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in July, 1928 (within a
few weeks, and a few miles of his predecessor, Anshel Brusilow) of
Ukrainian parents, Max and Anna. Carol grew up in the West Oak Lane
section of Northwest Philadelphia. He began playing the violin at
six and debuted as a soloist with the local WPA Symphony at nine. In
1941, Carol was admitted to the Curtis Institute of Music, where he studied
with Efrem Zimbalist, William Primrose, and others. Norman Carol was
chosen to attend Tanglewood during the summers of 1946 and 1947. From
this Tanglewood exposure, in 1947 Serge Koussevitzky offered, and Carol
turned down an invitation to join the Boston Symphony, because he still
sought a solo violin career. In April, 1949, Carol had a triumphal
New York solo debut at Town Hall in April, 1949. Then from 1949-1952
Norman Carol did join the first violin section of the Boston Symphony,
on the renewed invitation of Koussevitzky. Norman Carol served the
last two seasons of Serge Koussevitzky's tenure, and the first season of
the new Music Director, Charles Munch. In 1952, Norman Carol left
Boston to pursue a solo violin career and made his debut in Town Hall in
New York City. In 1953, Carol made his first appearance as
guest soloist with the Philadelphia Orchestra. However, his
career as a solo violinist was interrupted when was drafted, due to
the Korean War. He spent the war in San Francisco, where he met
his wife, Elinor Carol. Now having a family, Norman Carol began
reflecting on whether a solo violin career was the right path for him.
In the 1956-1957 season, Norman Carol decided to accept the position
of Concertmaster of the New Orleans Symphony. He was appointed by Alexander
Hilsberg, previous Philadelphia Concertmaster, who was conductor of the New
Orleans Symphony 1952-1961. Carol stayed in New Orleans 1956-1959.
In 1959, Carol joined the Minneapolis Symphony, selected by Antol Dorati,
who left the Orchestra before the new season started. Carol then was
Concertmaster in Minneapolis under then new Music Director Stanislaw
Skrowaczewski. Carol had intended to stay in Minneapolis. However,
in 1965, the contract dispute between the Philadelphia Orchestra and Concertmaster
Anshel Brusilow occurred, and after Brusilow resigned, Carol auditioned
for the opening. Norman Carol was selected by Eugene Ormandy as
twelfth Concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra, beginning with the
1966-1967 season. However, the Philadelphia Orchestra 1966-1967
season began with a nine-week strike over benefits. Carol finally
made his solo debut with the Orchestra the day after Christmas, 1966
in the Barber Violin Concerto. Carol remained as Philadelphia
Concertmaster for 28 seasons.
During this tenure, Normal Carol
was an admirer and friend with Riccardo Muti, who became Music Director
in 1980. During the early 1990s, Norman Carol experienced intense
shoulder pain and underwent surgery several times, unknown to his
colleagues. In a 1994 interview, he said "...I played in pain
for three years. I saw some doctors, I had a couple of surgeries, but
not all surgery is successful. I finally reached the point where I
couldn't handle it anymore..." 153. Carol then
announced in August, 1993 his retirement from the Philadelphia Orchestra
for the end of the 1993-1994 season. Unfortunately, Carol had to cancel
his solo farewell of the Barber Violin Concerto. Carol was a friendly,
yet private person, his wife Elinor being the more extroverted. Norman
Carol was widely respected for his excellent as a concerto soloist with the
orchestra, a role he performed hundereds of times. I recall in particular
a blazing performance of the Nielsen Violin Concerto with Ormandy in about 1971.
After retirement, Norman Carol continued teaching, including at the Curtis
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1995-1998 Erez Ofer
Erez Ofer was born in Israel in 1959 50. He studied with
famous violin teacher Ilona Feher (1901-1988). In 1971, as the result
of an Israel Broadcasting competition, Ofer performed with Isaac Stern and
the Israel Philharmonic. Ofer also studied with Josef Gingold, former
Cleveland Orchestra Concertmaster, at Indiana University in the late 1970s.
In the early 1980s, Ofer performed his Israel military service for 3
years. Then, Ofer studied in Germany at the Freiburg Musikhochschule
with Nicholas Chumachenco. In 1989, Ofer won the fourth prize medal
at the Queen Elisabeth competition in Belgium 48. In 1990, Offer
won the gold medal at the Zino Francescatti Competition in France. In
1991, Ofer entered the Juilliard School studying with Dorothy Delay. In
1992, Ofer became Concertmaster of the Bavarian State Radio Orchestra under
Lorin Maazel. Ofer remained a the Bavarian Radio under Maazel
1992-1995. In the 1995-1996, Ofer moved to the Philadelphia Orchestra
as Concertmaster, replacing Norman Carol. However, the selection did not prove
to be a success either for Erez Ofer or for the Philadelphia Orchestra.
Ofer was twice refused tenure by the orchestra committee, leading to his resignation.
Peter Dobrin of the Philadelphia Inquirer reported: "...Erez Ofer vacated
his post six months sooner than expected, with his final appearance on
March 3, 1998 the orchestra announced yesterday. The Israeli-born
violinist resigned in May, 1997 while on tour with the orchestra in Madrid
after the orchestra's tenure committee unanimously refused him tenure..."
225. Phyllis W. Rodríguez-Peralta
in her excellent book about the Philadelphia Orchestra: "...Everyone agreed
he was a splendid violinist, but unfortunately, unconcerned with the duties
of a Concertmaster. He was never given tenure..." 126.
Erez Ofer has also been active in chamber music. This has included as first
violin in the Amernet String Quartet, based in Cincinnati, which he joined in
1999 49, after leaving the Philadelphia Orchestra. Ofer was
with the Amernet Quartet 1999-2003. In 2001, Erez Ofer was
appointed Concertmaster of the Berlin Radio Orchestra
(Rundfunk-Sinfonieorchester Berlin), under Marek Janowski.
Continuing with chamber music, Ofer is a regular guest with the
Berlin-based Ensemble Mediterrain.
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1999-today David Kim
David Kim was born in Carbondale, Illinois in 1963. He began his
violin studies at age 8 with the famous teacher Dorothy DeLay (1917-2002).
David Kim was then admitted to the Juilliard School, where he earned
both BMus and MMus degrees. In 1986, David Kim won a prize in the VIII
International Tchaikovsky Competition, the only American violinist so honored.
For two seasons before coming to Philadelphia, David Kim was Associate
Concertmaster with the Dallas Symphony under Andrew Litton 1997–1999. David
Kim is also active in chamber music, and 1991-1996, he was violin of the Diaz Trio,
which toured the US, Latin America, and Europe. In 1999, David Kim won the
competition to become the fourteenth Concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra,
continuing a distinguished tradition. Also in 1999, David Kim founded the
Kingston Chamber Music Festival at the University of Rhode Island. David Kim
has recorded a beautiful album of classic hymns on the Paul Jones Music label
The Lord is My Shepherd, well worth listing to. In his masterclasses such
as at the Manhattan School of Music and his teaching at the Curtis Institute and other
institutions, students have commented on what seems a fusion of the teaching techniques
of his famous teacher Dorothy DeLay, with his own pedagogical approach. One aspect
of note in David Kim's playing is his complete involvement in the music and his evident
satisfaction in playing, even after years of concertizing. David Kim also has an
interesting website: www.davidkimviolin.com
Principal Cellos of the Philadelphia Orchestra
1900-1901 Rudolph Hennig
Thomas Eakins painting "The Cellist" of Rudolph
Hennig practicing in 1896
Rudolph Hennig was born in Bavaria in 1844 and trained at the
Leipzig Conservatory. Hennig emigrated to Philadelphia
as a boy, and became one of the pioneering classical cellists
and teachers in the United States. Hennig was a cellist at
the Walnut Street Theater following the Civil War. Rudolph Hennig was also
one of the founders of the Philadelphia Musical Academy in 1869, along with
Philadelphia musicians Johann F. Himmelsbach, and Wenzel Kopta. The photo
below shows Rudolph Hennig and other Philadelphia Musical Academy faculty in
1895 during the celebration of the 25 year Silver Jubilee of the Academy
(click on the image to see)
click on the thumbnail to see the full picture
Hennig was active not only in teaching, but in concerts and
chamber music from 1870 to 1900. Somewhat like
Theodore Thomas, Hennig was one of the few American
musicians of the second half of the nineteenth century to
make a successful career in performance of classical music.
He performed in chamber music concerts, particularly with the Beethoven
String Quartet (William Stoll Jr., Edwin A. Brill, Richard Schmidt,
Rudolph Hennig) and the Mendelssohn Quintet Club of Boston in
Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York Boston, and likely other cities
during this period. Rudolf Hennig was also a cellist in the
also Handel and Haydn Society Orchestra in 1867 and 1868 140).
In 1867, Hennig played with the Theodore
Thomas orchestra 12 which toured in Philadelphia,
Cincinnati, and other cities. From 1872 to 1879, Rudolph
Hennig was Principal cello in the Theodore Thomas Orchestra
13. He became the first Principal cello of the
Philadelphia Orchestra in November, 1900. Three years
after this first season, Rudolph Hennig died in Philadelphia on
May 28, 1904, age 60. Hennig has a memorial tablet in his
honor in the Philadelphia Academy of Music.
Rudolph Hennig is the subject of the famous Thomas Eakins
painting of 1896 "The Cellist", shown above.
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1901-1902 William Benedict Ebann
William Ebann was born in Bremen, Germany January 3, 1873, and
came with his family to the U.S. in 1882. He studied at the Cincinnati
College of Music and in Berlin in the 1890s. In 1897-1898 following his return
from European, he taught cello at the Cincinnati College of Music.
He moved to New York in 1898. He
became Principal cello of the Philadelphia Orchestra for one season in
1901-1902. Beginning in 1907, he taught at the New York German
Conservatory of Music, which by 1908 became the New York College of
Music. Prior to World War 1, Ebann played in a number of chamber
groups in the northeast U.S.; primarily in New York City.
William Ebann continued to teach at the New
York College of Music until the 1930s.
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1902-1904 Herman Sandby
Herman Sandby listing 1902-1904, 1908-1916.
Herman Sandby in 1906
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1904-1906 Alfred Saal
Alfred Saal was born in Baden-Württemberg, Germany in 1881
and settled in Stuttgart. Sall played in the orchestra of the Schloss Oranienstein
in the Rhineland-Palatinate area of Germany 221. In 1904, at the
invitation of Fritz Scheel, Saal moved to Philadelphia as Principal cello for
two seasons 1904-1906. In 1906, he played a concert in the
White House, under Fritz Scheel, where his artistry and "long
blond hair" were both noted. In about 1914, Alfred Saal
returned to Germany, based in Stuttgart. From about 1921 to
1933, Alfred Saal was a member of the Wendling Quartet consisting of
Carl Wendling, first, Hans Michaelis, second, Philipp Neeter, viola,
and Alfred Saal, cello 93.
Carl Wendling had been Concertmaster of the Boston Symphony
for one season, 1907-1908, and was a fellow Stuttgart
native. In 1922, the Wendling Quartet toured the United
States 94. Richard Aldrich, famous New York Times
critic wrote that the Quartet was '...Somewhat Lacking in Color and
Contrast in Dynamics...' 95. Alfred Saal also taught
in Germany conservatories.
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1906-1907 Vladimir Dubinsky
Vladimir Dubinsky in 1937
Vladimir Dubinsky was born in Harkoff, Russia September 10, 1873,
and studied at the Moscow Conservatory at the same time as Serge
Koussevitzky. He came to the U.S. in 1904. After a
single season as Philadelphia Orchestra Principal cello, 1906-1907,
he performed in chamber concerts and with singers in New York City
and toured with Ernestine Schumann-Heink. He was apparently also
cello with the Minneapolis Symphony and the Rochester Philharmonic.
During World War 1, he taught at the Kellerman School of Musical
Art, a musical high school in Brooklyn. in 1918 and 1919, he
appeared as a soloist with the New York Russian Symphony. In
the 1930s, he formed the Esardy Trio for radio broadcasts.
Dubinsky recorded the Tchaikovsky Nocturne opus19 no 1 and several
other works for Edison in the early 1920s, and cello works for
Okeh Records. He died in Syracuse, NY January 10, 1938
during a rehearsal of the Syracuse WPA Orchestra.
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1907-1908 Horace Britt
Letz Quartet 1921: Hans Letz, first, Horace Britt, cello,
Edward Kreiner, viola, Edwin Bachmann, second
Horace Britt was born on June 18, 1881, in Antwerp, Belgium.
Britt was a child prodigy, and grew up in Paris with his brother
Roger (violin) and his sister Gaëtane (harp), under the supervision
of their parents Ernst and Maria Britt. When Horace Britt
was 6, his mother began his training in solfège. He therefore
learned to sight read before he took up an instrument. Horace
studied cello, and his brother Roger Britt, the violin.
Horace Britt returned to Antwerp to study cello Gustav Faes to
prepare him for the Paris Conservatoire entrance examination
30. In November, 1892, at the age of 11, Horace
Britt won entrance to the Paris Conservatoire, where he studied
with Jules Delsart 1892-1895. Britt won the Conservatoire
cello Premier prix in 1895, at age 14, the youngest winner to that
time 30 (his record was broken the next year by 13 year
old Paul Bazelaire). Horace Britt was cello solo with the
Lamoureux Orchestra in 1897, and with the Colonne Orchestra in
1898. Britt made his American debut with the Chicago
Symphony (then the Theodore Thomas Orchestra) in 1907. At that
time, Britt was Principal cello of the Chicago Symphony 1905-1907.
Horace Britt's brother Roger was a first violin with the Philadelphia
Orchestra 1918-1924. After Chicago, Horace Britt became Principal
cello of the Philadelphia Orchestra for one season, 1907-1908.
In the 1910s, Britt became Principal cello of the Metropolitan Opera
Orchestra. Horace Britt in the early 1920s was cello with the
Hans Letz Quartet:
Hans Letz first, Edwin Bachmann second (later of
Toscanini's NBC Symphony), Edward Kreiner, viola (also later of
Toscanini's NBC Symphony),
cello. In 1924-1925 season, Horace Britt became
Principal cello with the Minneapolis Symphony, under Henri Verbrugghen.
During the 1925-1926 season, Horace Britt taught at the Curtis
Institute in Philadelphia. Horace Britt in the late 1920s
performed with the Elman String Quartet: Mischa Elman first,
Adolf Bak second,
Karl Rissland viola,
cello. The Elman Quartet also recorded
for Victor records in 1927, and in the same year, was the first
cellist to be recorded on a sound movie. In the 1940s, Horace Britt
formed the Britt Trio. From 1947-1950, Britt was
visiting Professor at the University of Texas, Austin, and then joined
the faculty. Britt continued at University of Texas 1950-1963,
when he retired as Professor Emeritus, Horace
Britt died in Austin, Texas on February 3, 1971, age 89.
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1902-1904, 1908-1916 Herman Sandby
Herman Sandby in 1920
Herman Sandby was born in Zeeland, Denmark March 21, 1883. He studied
for 5 years at the Frankfurt Conservatory with Hugo Becker 14.
In 1896 at age 15, Standby played for Queen Victoria at Buckingham Palace.
His formal debut was at the Copenhagen Orchestral Society concerts of January,
1900. Sandby toured the U.S. during 1903-1904. He then returned to
Europe, where he toured in 1905 with Percy Grainger who had come from Australia
to study at the Frankfurt Conservatory in 1904-1905 at the same period as Herman
Sandby. Percy Granger was a lifelong friend of Sandby and Sandby's
Australian-born wife. Incidentally, Sandby was a lifelong vegetarian, and
eventually converted Grainger to a vegetarian diet. Sandby moved to London
in 1906, and then relocated to Philadelphia for the 1908-1909 season.
The Philadelphia Orchestra was Sandby's only orchestral post, where he stayed
five seasons until 1916. Sandby returned to touring in the 1916-1917
season. Several of Sandby's compositions, including a cello concerto
were premiered in February, 1916 by Stokowski and the Orchestra. By
the 1920s Sandby was back in Europe and lived in Denmark until his death in
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1916-1920 Hans Kindler
Hans Kindler in the 1920s
Hans Kindler was a Dutch cellist, born in Rotterdam of German parents
on January 8, 1892. He performed as a cello soloist with the Berlin
Philharmonic at 18 40. He was named first cellist with
the Charlottenburg Opera (suburb of Berlin at that time) in 1910.
In April 1914, he performed the cello part in the world premiere of Schoenberg's
Pierrot Lunaire. In 1914, while on a tour in the U.S.,
Hans Kindler decided to remain, World War 1 having just started.
Kindler became Principal cello of the Philadelphia Orchestra beginning
with the 1916-1917 season. Hans Kindler first recorded for the Victor
Talking Machine Company in May, 1916 and between 1916 and 1921 Victor issued
approximately 20 sides of Kindler's cello recordings, all acoustic.
At this time also, Kindler was a member Rich Quartet, Thaddeus Rich first,
Harry Aleinkoff second, Romain Verney viola and Hans Kindler cello.
During the 1920s, Kindler was a cello soloist across the United states
40. He also toured England and continental Europe several
times in the 1920s, and made one world tour in 1929. Hans Kindler
had conducted in Philadelphia in the 1920s, and had been Music Director of
the Reading Symphony (Pennsylvania) for 8 seasons. In 1930, Kindler
conducted a concert in Washington, D.C. with an orchestra
of unemployed musicians. This being a success, Kindler then founded
the National Symphony Orchestra in Washington D.C. Its first concert
was in November, 1931. The National Symphony was not financially strong,
but Kindler kept alive through hiring young musicians at the beginning of their
careers and by recording. Hans Kindler continued as Music Director of the
National Symphony of Washington almost until his death in 1949. According to
Tim Page's history "...the musicians received a salary of $40.00 per week,
for three rehearsals and one concert, for five months of the year..."
He lead the National Symphony on network radio broadcasts beginning in 1937,
and in he and the National Symphony began recording for Victor in 1940.
Kindler also recorded for the Armed Forces Radio Service during World War 2.
Hans Kindler was said to be a difficult person, perhaps like many other conductors,
using sarcastic comments, and with consequent regular turnover of National
Symphony orchestral personnel. At the end of the 1948-1949 season, Kindler
left the National Symphony following a contractual disagreement.
Kindler was succeeded at the National Symphony by another cellist, conductor
Howard Mitchell, who conducted it for the next 20 years until 1969.
Kindler’s death at age only 57 on August 30, 1949 in Watch Hall, Rhode Island
was believed to be a suicide.
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1920-1925 Michel Penha
Michel Penha in about 1920
Michel Penha was born in December, 14 1888 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
He came from a musical family, his father Maurice Penha also being
a musician. Penha graduated from the Amsterdam Conservatoire in 1905,
at age 16 165. He had studied with Isaac Mossel (1870-1923).
Penha also studied with Hugo Becker (1864-1941), perhaps at Dr. Hoch’s
Konservatorium in Frankfurt. Michel Penha made his first concert
appearance in Amsterdam in 1907 and then toured Europe. He relocated
to New York in 1909. From 1909-1918, Michel Penha was active in
New York City as part of the Tollefsen Piano Trio 167, led
by Carl Tollefsen, at that time first violin
of the New York Symphony. Michel Penha also formed the Penha Trio,
based in New York City. Penha also performed chamber music recitals
in New York. In 1915-1916, Penha toured South America with Chilean
composer and pianist Alberto Guerrero (1886-1959) including in Bolivia,
Peru, Panama, Costa Rica, and Cuba. In the 1920-1921 season, Michel
Penha was appointed Principal cello of the Philadelphia Orchestra by
Leopold Stokowski. Penha was Principal cello for five seasons,
beginning in 1920, the same season in which
joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as Principal viola.
Also like his friend Verney, Michel Penha left the Philadelphia
Orchestra at the end of the 1924-1925 season to relocate to San Francisco.
Michel Penha become Principal cello of the San Francisco Symphony
appointed by Alfred Hertz in the 1925-1926 season. In the late 1920s,
Penha and Verney were together members of two string quartets, chamber music
groups forming an important part of Penha's career. These were the
California String Quartet: Robert Pollack first, William Wolski
second, Romain Verney viola, and Michel Penha cello, which continued into
the 1940s. The other was the Abas String Quartet, with Nathan Abas
first, Hubert Sorenson (1910-1971) second, Abraham Weiss viola and (for
at least part of the time) Michel Penha cello. In 1938, Michel Penha
was a member of the San Francisco String Quartet, founded by SFS
Concertmaster Naoum Blinder:
Naoum Blinder first,
William Wolski second,
Romain Verney viola, and
Michel Penha cello. Penha in 1930
relocated to Portland, Oregon for a time, although still active in the
San Francisco area. In Oregon, he played in the Neah–Kah–Nie String
Quartet: Susie Fennell Pipes first, Hubert Sorenson second, Alexander Vdovin
viola and Michel Penha cello. In 1951 in California, Penha joined
the Roussel Trio of Doriot Anthony (later Dwyer) flute, Harry Rumpler viola,
and Michel Penha cello, based in Los Angeles. Penha was also active
as a Hollywood studio musician at the MGM Studios166.
Michel Penha seems never to have married, and died in Los Angeles
in February 10, 1982, age 93.
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Hanns Gustav Pick
Hanns Pick at the University of Michigan School of Music
Hanns Pick was born in St. Gallen, Switzerland near the intersection
with the German and Austrian boarders on September 27, 1883. Hanns
Pick studied at the conservatory in Karlsruhe, Germany, about 90 km from his
home in St. Gallen. Hanns Pick came
to the US in 1923, and was appointed Principal cello of the Philadelphia
Orchestra by Leopold Stokowski upon the departure of Michel Penha.
Hanns Pick played with the Philadlephia Orchestra for one season 1925-1926.
After leaving Philadelphia, Hans Pick moved to New York City and became a US
citizen. Pick then taught at the University of Michigan, beginning
in 1929 and at least until 1949. At the University of Michigan, as well
being head of the cello department, Pick was active as a conductor.
Hanns Pick died November 9, 1957 in San Diego, California.
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1926-1935 Willem van den Berg
Willem van den Burg was born in the Hague, Netherlands in 1901. Van den
Burg studied at the Hague Conservatory, where he won the Foch medal
98. In the early 1920s, Van den Burg studied briefly
with Pablo Casals at L'École normale supérieure in Paris
100. He came to the US in 1924. In the 1925-1926 season,
Willem van den Berg joined the San Francisco Symphony under Alfred Hertz
as Assistant Principal cello sitting next to Principal cello Michel Penha.
The next season, Willem van den Berg moved to the Philadelphia Orchestra, selected
by Leopold Stokowski to become Principal cello, replacing Hanns Pick who lasted
with Stokowski only one season. Willem van den Berg was Principal cello of the
Philadelphia Orchestra for nine seasons, 1926-1935. Van den Berg also branched
into conducting. He conducted the Philadelphia Orchestra at Robin Hood Dell
(summer concerts in Philadelphia) in the 1930s 99. Also in
Philadelphia in the early 1930s,
Willem Van den Berg with
David Madison and
all of the Philadelphia Orchestra, formed the Guarnerius Quartet in the
1930s (not the same as the famous Guarneri Quartet formed by
in 1964). In the 1935-1936 season, Van den Berg
was hired by Pierre Monteux to return as Principal cello of the newly
reconstituted San Francisco Symphony Orchestra and also as Assistant
Conductor. Van den Burg had appeared as a cello soloist with Monteux
in Philadelphia and Amsterdam 101. Van den Burg had an
on-again off-again relationship with the Francisco Symphony cello
section as he pursued his conducting. He was Principal cello of
the San Francisco Symphony 1935-1938 and 1940-1941, with Boris Blinder
and Willem Dehé replacing him in the Principal cello chair for the two
intervening seasons.. Van den Burg also conducted local amateur
orchestras such as in Sacramento, and the WPA orchestra of San Francisco
Bay 96. In 1942, Willem van den Burg joined the faculty of
Mills College in Berkley, California 97 where Darius Milhaud
also taught. From 1950 to about 1954, Willem van den Burg was later
Principal cello and assistant conductor of the Los Angeles Philharmonic under
Alfred Wallenstein. Willem van den Burg arranged cello training
pieces entitled 67 Etudes for the Cello on the Beethoven Quartets
which are still used today for cello instruction. In the 1950s,
Willem van den Burg was part of the American Chamber Players along
with Ingolf Dahl, Milton Thomas and his wife Dorothy Wade.
In the 1960s, van den Burg taught at the University of California,
Santa Cruz, where he also was part of the Cowell Trio, made up of
faculty members Julia Zaustinsky, violin, Willem van den Burg, cello,
and Bella S. Zilagi, piano. He also played cello in Hollywood
studios in the 1960s. Willem van den Burg died in California
in 1992 after a rich and varied career.
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1935-1936 William A. Schmidt
William Schmidt 1935-1936, February - May 1939
1936-1939 Isadore Gusikoff
Isadore Gusikoff was born in New York City December 30, 1901, into the
musically prolific Gusikoff family. He may have been brother of
the other Philadelphia Orchestra Gussikoffs: Principal violin
Benjamin "Benji" Gusikoff
, and Principal trombone
. Isadore was cellist in the Philadelphia Orchestra for nearly eighteen
seasons 1921-1939. In the 1936-1937 season, Isadore Gusikoff was appointed
Principal cello. However, Isadore in the later 1930s after the departure
of Leopold Stokowski did not get along with Eugene Ormandy. Ormandy
finally dismissed Gusikoff in February, 1939, prior to the conclusion of the
1938-1939 season. This account was given by Time Magazine:
"...Ormandy had fired him...because Gusikoff 'made him nervous.'
Cellist Gusikoff promptly sued for the rest of his season pay, proudly
admitted that he had conducted a 'silence strike' while sitting in the
orchestra, accused Conductor Ormandy of lacking 'poetry, imagination,
subtlety and humor.'" 157 (note: This Time magazine
report caused a flurry of rebutting letters, including from the orchestra
musicians.) Isadore Gusikoff then joined the cello section of Toscanini's
NBC Symphony, beginning in 1938. In the summer of 1940, Isadore Gusikoff
also joined Leopold Stokowski's 1940 All-America Youth Orchestra tour of
South America with
, Anton Torello, and others. Isadore Gusikoff died in
Philadelphia in October, 1962.
1935-1936, February - May, 1939 William A. Schmidt
William A. Schmidt was born in Philadelphia in March 1883 into a musical
family to German-born parents. His father, Gustav Carl Schmidt
(1850-after 1910) was also a cellist and taught at the Philadelphia Musical Academy
in the 1880s and 1890s, and William's older brothers Gustav
and Emil, and sister Rose all became musicians. Brother
Emil Fredrick Schmidt
(1877- ) played violin and viola with the Philadelphia
Orchestra 1900-1901, 1903-1904, and 1908-1923.
William Schmidt may have studied at the University of Pennsylvania, as
did his brother Emil. William Schmidt was again briefly what we would
call today Acting Principal cello of the Philadelphia
Orchestra February through May, 1939 at the end of the 1938-1939 season
following the dismissal of
from his Principal cello position by Music Director Eugene Ormandy.
William Schmidt was a long-serving cellist of the Philadelphia Orchestra,
serving under each of the fist four Music Directors of the Philadelphia
Orchestra, Fritz Scheel, Karl Pohlig, Leopold Stokowski, and Ormandy himself.
He served for 34 seasons: 1903-1904, 1911-1912, and 1914-1946.
As an added note, William A. Schmidt does not seem to be closely related
, first Principal viola of the Philadelphia Orchestra
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1939-1943 (co-principal 1940-1943)
Kolisch Quartet, Felix Khuner second, Eugen Lehner viola, Benar Heifetz, cello
and Rudolf Kolisch first (right)
Benar Heifetz was born December 11, 1899 in Mogilyov, Russia (today in
Belarus) which for a small city was prolific in musicians.
, who founded the
Russian Symphony of New York
and the song writer Irving Berlin were born in Mogilyov.
Benar Heifetz studied, among others, with Julius Klengel (1859-1933),
perhaps at the Leipzig Conservatory. From 1927-1939, Benar Heifetz
was cello of the Kolisch String Quartet (Rudolf Kolisch, first violin
1896-1978, Felix Khuner, second, Eugene Lehner, viola and Benar Heifetz).
Heifetz also played in some recordings of the Budapest String
Quartet in the 1950s. Heifetz joined the Philadelphia Orchestra
in 1939 as Principal cello at the beginning of the 1939-1940 season.
However, in November, 1939, Eugene Ormandy decided to appoint Samuel
Mayes as Co-Principal cello with Benar Heifetz. Heifetz remained
Co-Principal cello until the end of the
1942-1943 season, after which he went to the NBC Symphony.
Incidentally, as to Rudolf Kolisch, he was an impressive artist and in
some way unique artist. In an accident, his middle finger of his
left had was crushed, and the finger tip had to be amputated.
Rather than giving up the violin, Kolisch trained himself to become
a left-handed violinist (as can be seen in the Kolisch Quartet
photograph, above). I do not know of another leading string
player to have successfully done that. To
hear a prime example of the Benar Heifetz cello tone,
listen to the November 27, 1939 recording
of Saint-Saëns Carnival des animaux. In 1943,
Heifetz left to join Toscanini's NBC Symphony. At that time,
from 1943 until the end of the Toscanini era in 1954, the NBC Symphony
featured a first Viola stand of
and Milton Katims (1909-2006) and a first
cello stand of Frank Miller and Benar Heifetz (!)
Benar Heifetz died in 1974.
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1939-1948, 1964-1973 (co-principal 1939-1943)
Samuel Houston Mayes
Dmitri Kabalevsky with Samuel Mayes (right) in 1964 prior to the
U.S. premier of the Kabalevsky Cello Concerto
Samuel Houston Mayes was born in St. Louis, Missouri on August
11, 1917. Samuel Mayes had a genuine American west background:
one of his grandfathers was a Cherokee chief, and two Oklahoma
counties were named for his forbearers, Rogers County and Mayes
County. Mayes began early with cello lessons with Max Steindel
(1891-1964), long time Principal cello of the St. Louis Symphony
(42 years with the orchestra). Mayes played at age 8 as soloist
with the St. Louis Symphony under Rudolph Ganz. Samuel Mayes
entered the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia in 1930, where he
studied with Felix Salmond (1888-1952). During the 1930s,
while at Curtis, Samuel Mayes played frequently in the cello section
of the Philadelphia Orchestra under Stokowski and Ormandy. Mayes
graduated from Curtis in the Class of 1937, and was already listed in
the Philadelphia Orchestra cello section in the 1936-1937 season.
During the 1939-1940 season, Samuel Mayes in November, 1939 was elevated
by Eugene Ormandy to be Co-Principal with Benar Heifetz, as described
above. When Heifetz departed for the NBC Symphony Orchestra in the
1943-1944 season, Samuel Mayes became Principal cello of the Philadelphia
Orchestra, and remained Principal in Philadelphia until the end of the
1947-1948 season. Serge Koussevitzky then selected Samuel
Mayes as Principal cello of the Boston Symphony beginning with
the 1948-1949 season, where Mayes remained for 18 seasons.
While in Boston, he married Winifred Schaefer, first woman in
a BSO string section. In 1964, Eugene Ormandy convinced
Samuel and Winifred Mayes to join the Philadelphia Orchestra
as Principal and co-Principal cellists. Samuel Mayes
remained with the Philadelphia Orchestra until declining health
convinced him to retire at the end of the 1972-1973
season. While in Philadelphia, in 1964, Samuel Mayes
gave the American premiere of the Kabalevsky Second Cello
Concerto, with Dmitry Kabalevsky (1904-1987) conducting.
After Samuel retired, Winifred Mayes remained with the Philadelphia
Orchestra four more seasons, departing at the end of 1976-1977.
Samuel Mayes, after Philadelphia, briefly taught at the Eastman
School of Music. He apparently thought that his health had
improved sufficiently for him to take up the position of Principal
cello of the Los Angeles Philharmonic under Zubin Mehta 1974-1975.
However, this proved not to be sustainable, and Mayes joined the
music faculty of the University of Michigan. Samuel Mayes
retired in 1984, but occasionally performed with the Aspen
Festival Orchestra and the Cincinnati Symphony. Before the
Eastman School and the University of Michigan, Samuel Mayes
taught at a series of schools, including the New England
Conservatory, Boston University and Temple University (in
Philadelphia). Unfortunately, Samuel Mayes's heath continued
to deteriorate, and following open heart surgery and later surgery
for colon cancer 135, he died in Mesa, Arizona on
August 24, 1990, age 73.
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1948-1951 Paul Olefsky
Paul Olefsky was born in Chicago on January 4, 1926.
His father, Maxim, born in Russia, was also an orchestra musician and
pianist. Maxim Olefsky (1899-1989) conducted the radio orchestras
of NBC and ABC in Chicago 141. Paul Olefsky studied
at the Curtis Institute with Gregor Piatigorsky (1903-1976).
Olefsky graduated from Curtis in the Class of 1947. In 1948,
at age 22, Paul Olefsky became the youngest Principal cellist in the
history of the Philadelphia Orchestra up to that time. During
the 1950-1951 season, in December, 1950, Paul Olefsky left the
Philadelphia Orchestra to play in the US Navy band during the Korean War
144. Following this service, Paul Olefsky became
Principal cellist in the newly reorganized Detroit Symphony under
Paul Paray. In June 1953 at the Michael Memorial Music Competition
in Chicago, cellist Paul Olefsky won first place, with Van Cliburn
placing second 142. This was a competition, no longer
active, for various instruments, rather than for piano or for strings.
By 1954, Paul Olefsky was back in Detroit as Principal cello, serving with
Detroit Concertmaster Mischa Mischakoff. In 1956, Paul Olefsky is
listed as being 'Principal cello' in the Chicago Symphony roster
143, only for 1956, rather than for 1956-1957, as is usual
in the roster listings for each season. Olefsky seems not to have
served with the Chicago Symphony for the entire 1956-1957 season, if
he did in fact take the Principal chair. By February, 1957,
Paul Olefsky is again listed in newspaper reviews as Principal cello
of the Detroit Symphony 143. After the Detroit
Symphony, Paul Olefsky seems to have left orchestral life.
He taught in New York at the Julliard School. During the 1960s
and 1970s, Olefsky's performing career as a cellist was primarily
devoted to chamber music. At this time, Paul Olefsky was also
active in conducting, which he had done previously on several occasions
throughout his career. Later, Olefsky became Professor of Music
at the University of Texas, Austin, from which he has now retired.
In 1989, Paul Olefsky married the cellist Hai Zheng.
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1951-1964 Lorne A. Munroe
Lorne Munroe at Lincoln Center, New York
Lorne Munroe was born in Manitoba, Canada on November 24, 1924. Munroe won
the Winnipeg Music Competition Festival at age 10. When 14, Lorne Munroe was
taken to London by his sponsor, the Australian composer and pianist Arthur
Benjamin (1893-1960), who also taught at the Royal College of Music.
In London, Munroe he studied at the Royal College of Music under the famous
cello teacher Ivor James (1882-1963). Lorne Munroe then studied
at the Curtis Institute in the same class as Paul Olefsky, graduating in 1947.
As did Olefsky, Lorne Munroe studied cello with Gregor Piatigorsky. After
graduation from Curtis, Monroe went to the Cleveland Orchestra as Principal
cello for one season 1949-1950 under George Szell. While with the
Cleveland Orchestra, interestingly Lorne Munroe appeared as a soloist
with the Philadelphia Orchestra142. Lorne Munroe
then played for one season with the Minneapolis Symphony 1950-1951. In December,
1950, Paul Olefsky left the Philadelphia Orchestra as a result of the Korean War to
join the US Navy Band. The Principal cello chair of the Philadelphia Orchestra
was then open until September of the following season when Lorne Munroe was appointed
Principal cello by Eugene Ormandy. Lorne Munroe left the Philadelphia Orchestra
at the end of the 1963-1964 season to join the New York Philharmonic under Leonard
Bernstein. Lorne Munroe was then for 32 seasons Principal cello with the New York
Philharmonic from 1964-1996. In New York, Munroe also taught at Juilliard.
At age 72, in February, 1996, Lorne Munroe and his wife Janee retired to their home in
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1973-2006 William Stokking
William Stokking Jr. was born in Ventnor, New Jersey, near Atlantic City on
April 6, 1933. His Dutch-born father, William Stokking Sr. was a
professional violinist, playing in theater orchestras who gave his son his
first musical instruction. His mother was Swedish-born.
Stokking studied with Gregor Piatigorsky at the Curtis Institute, graduating
in the Class of 1949. William Stokking joined the cello section of the
Cleveland Orchestra under George Szell in the 1958-1959 season, and remained
for two seasons until 1960. William Stokking returned to the Cleveland
Orchestra as Principal cello in the 1971-1972 in the interim between George
Szell's death and the appointment of Lorin Maazel, when Pierre Boulez was
Musical Advisor. Stokking remained Principal cello until the end of
Lorin Maazel's first season in Cleveland 1972-1973. William Stokking
then returned to Philadelphia, appointed Principal cello of the Philadelphia
Orchestra under Eugene Ormandy in the 1973-1974 season. William Stokking
served as Principal cello in Philadelphia for 33 seasons, retiring at the end
of 2002-2003. In the early 2000s, William Stokking, a long-time New Jersey
resident was Principal cello of the Princeton Chamber Symphony. William
Stokking's wife Nancy is also a cellist, playing freelance and teaching.
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2006-present Hai-Ye Ni
photo: Chris Lee, n.d.
Hai-Ye Ni was born in Born in Shanghai, China in 1972. After receiving
her first cello lessons from her mother, Ms. Ni entered the Shanghai
Conservatory of Music. She then studied at the San Francisco
Conservatory with Irene Sharp. Admitted to the Juilliard School,
Hai-Ye Ni studied with Joel Krosnick. After Juilliard, Ms. Ni
continued her work with the well-known London-based teacher
William Pleeth (1916-1999), who was himself a student of
Julius Klengel (1859-1933). In 1990, Hai-Ye Ni won
First Prize at the Naumburg International Cello Competition
in New York City. Following this award, Hai-Ye Ni made
her debut at Alice Tully Hall, New York in 1991. In 1996,
Hai-Ye Ni won First Prize in a highly competitive
International Pualo Cello Competition in Finland. In
1997, Hai-Ye Ni toured 14 US cities to perform Two Poems,
the 1998 work for cello and orchestra composed by Bright Sheng
(1955- ). In 1999, Hai-Ye Ni won the competition to become
Associate Principal cello of the New York Philharmonic.
She served in New York for seven seasons, 1999-2006.
In 2006, Hai-Ye Ni won the competition to become the
seventeenth Principal cello of the Philadelphia Orchestra.
She is also active in summer music festivals, including the
Marlboro Music Festival - Vermont, the Spoleto
Festival - South Carolina, the Santa Fe Chamber Music
Festival - New Mexico, the Aspen Music Festival - Colorado,
the La Jolla SummerFest - California, the Kuhmo Festival -
Finland, and the Pablo Casals Festival - France.
Hai-Ye Ni performed the music of Ellen Taaffe Zwilich
(1939- ) at the Carnegie Hall Weill Recital Hall in
2004. Hai-Ye Ni's complete mastery of technique
means that Hai-Ye Ni can concentrate totally on inspiration
of the music.
Hai-Ye Ni with Charles Dutoit in 2008
Principal Violas of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1
1900-1901  Richard Schmidt
Richard Schmidt circa 1896
Richard Schmidt was born in New York City on May 5, 1865 of German parents.
His father Adolph and mother Augusta (Schmidt) were both violinists, and both
born in Germany in 1835. The Schmidt family moved to Philadelphia by
1880. was From about 1891 to 1900, Richard Schmidt was, along with
(the first Principal cello of the Philadelphia Orchestra) part of the
Beethoven String Quartet (consisting of
William Stoll Jr
. first, Edwin A. Brill second, Richard Schmidt viola,
Rudolph Hennig cello). Richard Schmidt also taught at the Philadelphia
Musical Academy, founded in 1869 by Rudolf Hennig, John Himmelsbach, and
others. In 1898, Richard Schmidt also played in the Thunder Orchestra,
a Philadelphia orchestra that briefly existed between the demise of the Germania
Orchestra of Philadelphia, and the organization of the Philadelphia Orchestra.
Richard Schmidt became the first Principal viola of the Philadelphia Orchestra
in the 1900-1901 season. Schmidt left the orchestra after this first season,
but remained in Philadelphia as a theater musician, first as violinist and later
as a conductor. At this period, theaters were among the most frequent
employers of musicians, usually for silent films, and had the important advantage
that they offered year-around employment. Schmidt continued this at least
until 1930. Although the record of his death has not yet been located,
he likely died in Philadelphia after 1936. As an added note, Richard Schmidt
does not seem to be closely related to
William A. Schmidt
, 34 seasons in the cello
section of the Philadelphia Orchestra, nor William's brother
seventeen seasons in the Philadelphia Orchestra violin section.
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1901-1902 Siegfried L. Wertheim
Siegfried Wertheim was born in Germany July 24, 1869. Siegfried Wertheim
became the second Principal viola of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1901-1902
season. After one year in Philadelphia, Wertheim relocated to Paris, where
he was Principal viola with the Colonne Orchestra about 1902-1904.
Then, in 1904, Siegfried Wertheim moved to the London Queen's Hall Orchestra under
Henry Wood (after 1911, Sir Henry). Like his successor as Philadelphia
Orchestra Principal viola, Emile Férir, Siegfried Wertheim was Principal Viola
of the Queen's Hall Orchestra where he served seven seasons 1904-1911 under Sir
Henry Wood (1869-1944) 6. Wertheim succeeded the legendary
violist Lionel Tertis (1876-1975) in the Queen's Hall Orchestra Principal
viola chair. In
1907, Siegfried Wertheim was a founding member of a new string quartet in
London, the Hambourg String Quartet, Jan Hambourg first, Maurice Sax
second, Siegfried Wertheim viola, Boris Hambourg cello 6.
In 1912, Siegfried Wertheim conducted the Orchestra Femina consisting
entirely of British women musicians, considered at that time a novelty,
played in England and toured the US vaudeville circuit in 1912.
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1902-1908 Jan Koert
Jan Koert was born in the Netherlands in 1853, and trained in Rotterdam
as a violinist and violist. In the early 1880s, Jan Koert became
Second Concertmaster of the orchestra in Ostend, Belgium seated at the
first stand beside Eugène Ysaÿe (1858-1931), who was Concertmaster.
Jan Koert also played in Paris with the Rubinstein Quintet, with the
touring Anton Rubinstein (1829-1894), piano and Jan Koert first violin
158. In June, 1889, Jan Koert emigrated to
the U.S. He may have briefly played in the Theodore Thomas touring
orchestra at that time 158. In 1890, in New York City,
he married the Polish soprano Selma Kronold. He was also a soloist
with the Boston Symphony in 1890 and 1891. Koert was on the faculty
of the National Conservatory of Music in New York in 1892. This was
at the time that the conservatory was directed by Antonin Dvorak 1891-1895
during his stay in the US. Koert at that time was part of the Brodsky
String Quartet with Adolph Brodsky (then Concertmaster of the New York
Symphony) first violin, Jan Koert, second violin. Although the premier
of Dvorak's American Quartet opus 96 was performed by the Kneisel
Quartet in Boston in 1894, the Brodsky Quarter performed the new quartet
in New York City later that year. Jan Koert became Principal viola of
the New York Symphony in the 1894-1895 season, and then became third chair
violin, and finally Concertmaster from 1895-1898 15.
In his book Music is my Faith 29, David Mannes
who was second to Koert, and then later Concertmaster
himself wrote: "…Jan Koert was very kind and helpful. As
Concertmaster he proved himself an experienced leader of the first
violins, though he was never a distinguished player."
However, Mannes further wrote that he had great respect for the
musicianship and musical knowledge of Jan Koert. Jan Koert joined
the violin section of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the first season,
1900-1901. In the second season 1901-1902, he became Second or
Associate Concertmaster. Then, for six seasons, Jan Koert was
Principal viola of the Philadelphia Orchestra from 1902-1908.
Jan Koert died in Atlantic City, New Jersey on February 2, 1911,
only age 57 158.
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1908-1915 William A. Diestel
William Diestel with Alfred Lorenz behind him in 1913
William Diestel was born on November 27, 1869 in was is now the state
of Thuringia, in central Germany. He emigrated to the U.S., going
to Chicago in 1892. William Diestel followed his older brother
Herman who had emigrated the previous year in 1891. Hermann Diestel
was a cellist, and he joined the Chicago Orchestra (as it was then called)
in its third season 1893-1894. William Diestel joined the Chicago
Orchestra two seasons later in 1895-1896. Both William and Hermann
Diestel left the Chicago Orchestra at the end of the 1896-1897 season.
They both continued to teach 1895-1901 at the Spiering Violin School of Chicago
Theodore Spiering 1871-1925)
, and Hermann Diestel taught at the Chicago Musical College.
After eight seasons absense, William Diestel returned to the
Chicago Symphony 1905-1908 now in the viola section. William
Diestel then moved to Philadelphia as Principal viola for seven season 1908-1915.
After leaving Philadelphia at the end of the 1914-1915 season,
William Diestel returned to Chicago, where he
played with the Chicago Grand Opera under the dynamic
leadership of Cleofonte Campanini (1860-1919). William
Diestel died March 29, 1926 in Chicago at the relatively young
age of 56.
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1915-1917 Henry Joseph Michaux
Henry J. Michaux was born in Liege, Belgium February 26,
1882 and emigrated to the U.S. in 1913, first
to Boston and then Philadelphia. After being Principal
viola in the Philadelphia Orchestra from 1915-1917,
he remained with the Orchestra viola section until 1940.
In 1940, Henry and his wife Jeanne retired to their home in
Woodstock, N.Y. Henry Michaux had lived in Woodstock during
summers in the New York State Catskills region, where
he was active in the Maverick Concerts.
There, he was also active in the Maverick String Quartet:
first, Leon Barzir second, Henry Michaux viola,
and Silvio Lavatelli cello. Starting in 1929, while spending summers
in the Catskills, Henry Michaux also taught violin and viola at
's Ithaca Military Band School into the
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1917-1918 Alfred Lorenz
Alfred Lorenz in 1921
Alfred Lorenz was born in Halle, Germany October 10, 1878, and emigrated to
the U.S. in 1901. Alfred Lorenz was a long-term viola player in the
Philadelphia Orchestra from 1901 to 1943. He was appointed Principal
viola during the 1917-1918 season. From about 1914 to 1921, with
fellow Philadelphia Orchestra musicians
and his brother
(cello 1903-1946) and
(violin 1908-1922), they formed the Schmidt Quartet 5.
At the end of his long Philadelphia Orchestra career, Alfred Lorenz was
appointed Assistant Concertmaster of the orchestra during the war years
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1918-1919 Emile Auguste Férir
Emile Férir in 1913
Émile Férir was born July 18, 1873 in Brussels, Belgium. He gained entry to the
Conservatoire Royal de Musique - Brussels, winnin his Premier prix in
1891 229. He played viola in the Lamoureux Orchestra of Paris
in 1892. The next season, Émile Férir went to Glasgow, where he was Principal
viola of the Scottish Symphony. From 1897-1903, he was Principal viola at Henry Wood's
Queen Hall Orchestra in London 10. While in Britain,
he was also active in the Kruse String Quartet: Johann Kruse first,
Charles Schilsky second, Emil Férir viola 145. Émile Férir
emigrated to the U.S. at the end of his 1902-1903 season in London in September,
1903. Presumably, he had already been contracted by Wilhelm Gericke
to become Principal viola of the Boston Symphony. While in
Boston, Férir became a US citizen in 1917. Émile Férir was
Principal violist of the Boston Symphony Orchestra for fifteen seasons,
from 1903-1918. The next season, Leopold Stokowski, who had gone
through two Principal violas in three seasons appointed
Émile Férir Principal viola of the Philadelphia Orchestra
. Unfortunately for Férir, he also lasted only
one season, 1918-1919, with the Philadelphia Orchestra. Férir
then joined the New York Symphony during the early 1920s. At this
time he also joined the Berkshire String Quartet, funded by Elizabeth
Sprague Coolidge (1864-1953), consisting (at that time at least)
of Hugo Kortschak first,
second, Emile Férir viola, and
Emmeran Stoeber cello. Émile Férir
in the viola position of the Berkshire Quartet.
In the early to mid 1920s, Émile Férir was Principal viola for the
Los Angeles Philharmonic, where he joined
Emile Férir died in Orange County, California on April 26, 1949.
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1919-1920 Samuel Belov
Samuel Belov in 1936
Samuel Belov was born in what is now Dnepropetrovsk in the Ukraine,
then part of Russia on April 4, 1884. Samuel Belov and his brother
Joel Belov emigrated to the U.S. in 1906, and settled first in
Philadelphia, where he joined the Philadelphia Orchestra in the
1908-1909 season in the viola section. Samuel Belov's brother,
Joel Belov (1889-1964) was also in the Philadelphia Orchestra violin
section 1912-1920. Samuel Belov served twelve seasons in the
Philadelphia Orchestra viola section under Karl Pohlig and Leopold
Stokowski. In his last season, 1919-1920, Stokowski advanced
Samuel Belov to the Principal viola position. The next season,
Samuel Below moved to Rochester, New York, where he taught briefly
at the Dossenbach-Klingberg Institute in Rochester. The next
year, George Eastman, founder of Kodak formed the Eastman School of
Music, and certain professors of the Dossenbach-Klingberg Institute
were invited to join the Eastman faculty 53. So,
from 1921, Samuel Belov helped create both the Eastman Rochester
Orchestra, and was also a founding teacher of violin faculty of
the new Eastman School of Music 53.
Samuel Below served at the Eastman School for
twenty eight years, 1921-1949 teaching violin and viola.
Later, Samuel Belov also conducted frequently at the Eastman
school, which was regularly broadcast during the 1930s.
In chamber music, Samuel Belov was also viola in the Kilbourn
at the Eastman School 52. The Kilbourn Quartet
was personally funded by George Eastman (founder of Eastman Kodak),
and was active from 1921-1932, the year of Eastman's death.
Later, in 1942, Samuel Belov was joined at the Eastman School by
, former Concertmaster of the Chicago Symphony. Samuel Belov
died in New York in 1954.
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1920-1925 Romain Joseph Verney
Romain Verney in 1906
Romain Verney was born in France in March 20, 1878. He gained entrance to
the Paris Conservatoire where he gained his Premier prix in about the 1896
Concour. Following the Conservatoire, Romain Verney played viola
in the Concerts Colonne Orchestra. During this time, he was the stand
partner of Pierre Monteux; Monteux was Principal viola of the
Concerts Colonne 1893-1912. Romain Verney emigrated to the U.S. in
1905. Romain's father Joseph Verney was also a musician,
playing in the French Republican Guards and the Panama-Pacific
Exposition in 1915. Romain Verney taught at the Institute
for Musical Studies (Julliard) from about 1906-1909. In
1910, he was Principal viola of the New York Symphony. He
was Principal viola at the Chicago Opera during World War 1. He
returned to the New York Symphony as Principal Viola in 1919.
Verney joined the Philadelphia Orchestra the same season as
, and stayed during the same term. While in Philadelphia, he
also was a member of the of the Rich Quartet:
Thaddeus Rich first,
Harry Aleinikoff second,
Romain Verney viola and
Hans Kindler cello. Romain Verney was Principal
viola in Philadelphia for five seasons from 1920-1925. In 1925, Verney
moved to California. He was Principal viola of the San Francisco Symphony
succeeding Lajos Fenster under Alfred Hertz 1925-1931, and Co-Principal viola with
Jascha Veissi in the 1931-1932 season. Then, during 1932-1934, Verney moved
back in the San Francisco viola section, and again after the suspension of the
San Francisco Symphony in 1934-1935 season, continued until 1936. In the
1936-1937 season Pierre Monteux advanced his old stand parter to the Associate
Principal viola chair of the San Francisco Symphony. Nathan Firestone was
at that time Principal viola. Romain Verney remained Associate Principal
viola in San Francisco through the 1955-1956 season. He was stand partner
with Principal viola Ferenc Molnar 1943-1956. Verney then remained in
the viola section for one more season, retiring at the end of 1956-1957 after
more than fifty seasons of orchestral service. Roman Verney lived in
San Mateo, a San Francisco suburb where he also taught viola at Mills College and
also at the Peninsula Conservatory of Music San Mateo, California in 1950s.
In the late 1920s and into the 1930s, Verney was also a member
of the California String Quartet:
Robert Pollack first,
William Wolski second,
Romain Verney viola, and Verney's old friend
Michel Penha cello, and
the Abas String Quartet, also with Penha. In 1938, he was
a member of a similar group, the San Francisco String Quartet, founded
by SFS Concertmaster Naoum Blinder:
Naoum Blinder first,
William Wolski second,
Romain Verney viola, and
Michel Penha cello (and with the membership
changing in later seasons 155). Romain
Verney died in San Mateo, California on June 28, 1967, aged 89 after
a full career including a half century of leading orchestral work and
teaching of several generations of musicians.
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1925-1955 Samuel Lifschey
Samuel Lifschey in 1919
Samuel Lifschey was born in New York City on May 6, 1889. He studied
violin under Arnold Volpe (1869-1940) in the 1910s. By 1917, Lifschey
was a viola player in the New York Symphony under Walter Damrosch.
Lifschey also played at the Maverick Festival at Woodstock, New York during
the summers in the early 1920s. For two seasons, 1921-1923, Samuel
Lifschey was Principal viola of the Cleveland Orchestra. Samuel
Lifschey then was appointed Principal viola of the Philadelphia Orchestra
by Leopold Stokowski in the 1925-1926 season. Lifschey served as
Principal viola in Philadelphia for thirty seasons, 1925-1955.
Elias Lifschey, father of Marc Lifschey the oboe Principal of the San
Francisco Symphony, was also a viola player. Elias Lifschey played
viola in the NBC Symphony under Toscanini. However, the relationship
of Elias Lifschey to Samuel Lifschey, although probably is still subject to
research. In 1936, Time Magazine in a breezy article reported
"...Samuel Lifschey, leader of the viola section, has been a
six-day bicycle racer, a dentist, a pharmacist, an engineer..."
38. Although interesting, the information about Lifschey
"being a dentist,a pharmacist, and engineer" is not further
elucidated. Samuel Lifschey died in Philadelphia in 1961.
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1955-1956 Harry Zaratzian
Harry Zaratzian, of Armenian heritage was born in Egypt in 1922.
In January, 1923, his family emigrated to the U.S. Zaratzian was
violist with the Houston Symphony in about 1950. He was
Principal viola of the New York Philharmonic 1951-1955. He moved
to the Philadelphia Orchestra for the 1955-1956 season. After leaving the
Philadelphia Orchestra, Zaratzian became a widely recorded New York-based
sessions musician in the 1960s through the 1990s. In about 1963, he was
briefly a member of the Kroll String Quartet: William Kroll first, William Stone
second, Harry Zaratzian viola, Avron Twerdowsky cello 170.
Harry Zaratzian alwo played in the Marlboro Music Festival 1965-1967, and
toured with the Marlboro international tour, conducted by Rudolf Serkin
in 1965. In the 1970s, Harry Zaratzian continued his chamber music
career with the Piper String Quartet: Paul Gershman first, Secondon Proto
second, Harry Zaratzian viola, Barbara Stein-Malow cello. This quartet
took its name from the Piper Opera House in Virginia City, Nevada, where it
performed summers during the 1970s.
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1956-1963 Carlton Samuel Cooley
Carlton Cooley in an NBC publicity drawing
Carlton Cooley was born in Milford, New Jersey (west of New York City) on
April 15, 1898. Cooley studied at the Philadelphia Musical Academy
with Frederick Hahn (formerly of the Boston Symphony) and Camille Zeckwer,
and later with the famous violin teacher Percy Goetschius (1853-1943)
at the Institute of Musical Art (Juilliard) 42. In the
1919-1920 season, the 21 year old Carlton Cooley joined the viola section
of the Philadelphia Orchestra. Cooley then moved to the Cleveland
Orchestra, selected by Nikolai Sokoloff to be Principal viola,
succeeding Herman Kolodkin in the 1920-1921 season. The next
season, Sokoloff moved Cooley to the first stand of the first violins,
next to Concertmaster Louis Edlin, as what we would call today
Associate Concertmaster. This was for one season. Then,
in the 1922-1923 season, Nikolai Sokoloff moved Cooley back to the
Principal viola position of the Cleveland Orchestra where he remained
under Sokoloff and then Artur Rodzinski until the end of the 1936-1937
season. Cooley left Cleveland to become Principal viola of the
NBC Symphony. He would have been hired by Artur Rodzinski, who
know Cooley from Cleveland, and selected Carlton Cooley even though he
was raiding his own Cleveland Orchestra. Rodzinski, already known
as an orchestra-builder had been appointed to organize and prepare the
NBC Symphony for Arturo Toscanini. Carlton Cooley remained
Principal viola of the NBC from 1937-1954 during all the years of Maestro
Toscanini's tenure. Cooley of course participated in the
South American tour of the NBC Symphony in the Summer of 1940.
After leaving the NBC Symphony upon Toscanini's retirement, Carlton
Cooley joined the Philadelphia Orchestra viola section under Ormandy
in the 1954-1955 season at the same time as Harry Zaratzian moved
from the New York Philharmonic to become Principal viola of the
Philadelphia Orchestra. Two seasons later, beginning 1956-1957,
Carlton Cooley was appointed Principal viola, succeeding the departing
Harry Zaratzian. Carlton Cooley remained with the Philadelphia
Orchestra for 9 seasons (plus a tenth, counting 1919-1920), until he
reached the mandatory retirement age of 65 in the 1962-1963 season.
Cooley is particularly remembered for his recording of Berlioz
Harold in Italy under Toscanini, as well as the 1951 Toscanini
Enigma Variations and for Cooley's solos in the Richard Strauss
Don Quixote under Ormandy, with Lorne Monroe, cello.
Carlton Cooley also recorded with Ormandy his own composition: the
Aria and Dance for Viola and Orchestra, which Nikolai Sokoloff
had also performed in 1926 with the Cleveland Orchestra. Carlton
Cooley died in Stockton, New Jersey (about 15 miles
from his birth place) in November 1981.
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1963-1964 William Schoen
William Schoen was born in Czechoslovakia in 1919, and came with his family to the
US as an infant 107. William Schoen studied at the
Eastman School of Music, and at the Julliard School. In the summer of 1940,
William Schoen played viola in Leopold Stokowski's All American Youth Orchestra
tour of Brazil and Argentina. Prior to
coming to Philadelphia, William Schoen played in the staff broadcasting
orchestras of NBC, ABC and CBS 106. In the 1950s, William
Schoen was viola in the Guilet String Quartet: Daniel Guilet (1899-1990) first,
Henry Siegl (1911-1997) second, William Schoen, viola, David Soyer (1923-2010)
- later of the Guarneri String Quartet, cello).
The Guilet Quartet recorded early LPs for Concert Hall
records. Beginning in 1954 217,
William Schoen also played with the Claremont
Quartet: Marc Gottlieb first, Vladimir Weisman second, William Schoen, viola,
and Irving Klein cello 216. William Schoen was Principal viola of the
Philadelphia Orchestra under Eugene Ormandy for one season, 1963-1964.
Schoen also participated in the Marlboro Music Festival in Massachusetts.
During his season in Philadelphia, it seems that Eugene Ormandy determined to make
a change in the first viola position, and hired Joseph de Pasquale, and at the
same time Principal cello Samuel Mayes and his wife Winifred from the Boston
Symphony. Following the Philadelphia Orchestra, William Schoen moved to
Chicago, where he was Assistant Principal viola of the Chicago Symphony for 32
seasons, 1964-1996. While playing in Chicago, Schoen also was a sessions
musician at local recording sessions. His wife, Mona Schoen was a
long-time violinist of the Chicago Lyric Opera. William Schoen died after
1997, but I have not yet seen the exact date.
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1964-1996 Joseph de Pasquale
Joseph de Pasquale was born in Philadelphia in December, 1919.
His father, Oreste de Pasquale was also a violinist, who gave Joseph
his first lessons. Accepted at the Curtis Institute as a
violinist, Joseph de Pasquale switched to viola at the suggestion
of Max Aronoff of the Curtis String Quartet (1906-1981) and
Louis Bailly (1882-1974). At Curtis, de Pasquale studied
with Aronoff and Bailly, and later with William Primrose
(1904-1982). Joseph de Pasquale graduated from Curtis in the
Class of 1942. During World War 2, de Pasquale played in the US
Marine Band and Orchestra in Washington DC, and took the train
to Philadelphia every two weeks to study with William Primrose.
Following the retirement of Jean Lefranc from the Boston Symphony
at the end of the 1946-1947 season, Serge Koussevitzky appointed
Joseph de Pasquale Principal viola of the Boston Symphony
beginning in the 1947-1948 season. Jean Cauhapé remained in the
second chair of the viola section. Joseph de Pasquale
was married to the niece of Serge Koussevitzky's wife, Natalya Ushkov
Koussevitzky. In Boston, de Pasquale played the very large
Gasparo de Salo viola. Eugene Ormandy favored the richer sound
of a large viola and insisted his viola section use these. Joseph
de Pasquale's Gasparo de Salo viola was large even by these standards.
Ormandy had invited Joseph de Pasquale to join the Philadelphia Orchestra
on several occasions, and after seventeen seasons in Boston, de Pasquale
became Philadelphia Orchestra Principal viola in the 1964-1965
season. Joseph Pasquale held the first
viola position in Philadelphia until he retired at the end of the
1995-1996 season. Harry Ellis Dickson, BSO violinist, and sometime
conductor of the Boston Pops said that de Pasquale was know for two
things, besides his music. One was that he was an excellent
cook and the other was his means of expression. "...he was
known as 'Mister Malaprop'...Just before the birth of his first
child...I said 'dont do what I did...we waited so long to go the the
hospital that the baby was almost born on the way'. 'Oh', he
said, if the baby comes, all you goda to do is cut the biblical
cord!'" 39 de Pasquale taught at the Curtis
Institute for more than 20 years, succeeding his teacher and mentor
William Primrose. The list of his successful students in US
symphony orchestras is long, his legacy to orchestra music making.
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1996-2006 Roberto Diaz
Roberto Díaz with Christoph Eschenbach
Roberto Díaz was born in Santiago, Chile on November 15, 1960. His was a
musical family; Roberto Díaz's father was also a violist, and his mother a
pianist 138. Although Roberto Díaz began with the violin, he
switched to viola when the family moved to Atlanta 136. Díaz
studied the Chile Conservatory, where his father taught, and, beginning in 1978
at the New England Conservatory with Burton Fine. He then studied with
Joseph de Pasquale at the Curtis Institute. After graduation, Roberto
Díaz was viola with the Minnesota Orchestra under Sir Neville Marriner.
Roberto Díaz was viola with the Boston Symphony 1985-1990. In 1988,
Roberto Díaz won the Washington International Competition 137,
unusual for a viola. He departed Boston to become Principal
viola of the National Symphony of Washington D.C. under Mstislav Rostropovich
1990-1996. In 1996, Roberto Díaz won the competition to become Principal
viola of the Philadelphia Orchestra, following the retirement of his teacher,
Joseph de Pasquale. Roberto Díaz was Principal viola with the Philadelphia
Orchestra for ten seasons, 1996-2006. When Gary
Graffman decided to retire as President of the Curtis Institute in 2005 the Board
of Curtis selected Roberto Díaz to succeed Graffman beginning in 2006.
This continues the Curtis tradition of being headed by a performing musician, such as
Díaz's predecessors, such as: Josef Hofmann, Efrem Zimbalist, Rudolf Serkin and of
course Graffman. Roberto Díaz plays on a 1739 Camilli viola and a
1595 Amati viola that was formerly owned by William Primrose.
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2006-present Choong-Jin (C.J.) Chang
Choong-Jin Chang was born in Korea in 1968. He was soloist with the Seoul
Philharmonic at age 12, as first place winner of the Yook Young National
Competition. The next year, 1981, C. J. Chang entered the Juilliard
School. He then moved to the Curtis Institute, where he graduated in the
Class of 1994. Chang's teachers have included Jascha Brodsky, Margaret
Pardee, and his Principal viola predecessor Joseph de Pasquale. Following
Curtis, in November, 1994, C. J. Chang joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as
Associate Principal viola. He was advanced to the Principal viola chair in
the 2006-2007 season. Choong-Jin Chang is also an enthusiastic chamber
music musician. He was a founding member in 1977 of the Johannes Quartet,
with Robert Chen first, Soovin Kim second, and cellist Peter Stumpf.
The Johannes Quartet has been the resident quarter of the Philadelphia
Chamber Music Society. C. J. Chang teaches both violin and viola
at the Boyer College of Music at Temple University. C. J. Chang continues
the Philadelphia Orchestra rich viola tradition.
Principal Oboes of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1
1900-1901 Adolph Sauder
Adolph Sauder was born in Pennsylvania of German parents in January, 1863.
Sauder was the first Principal oboe of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the initial
1900-1901 season. Sauder also performed in the Bach Festivals in Bethlehem,
Pennsylvania in 1901, 1903, 1904, and 1905.
1901-1902 Karl Stiegelmayer
Karl Stiegelmayer was probably born in Germany in 1869.
Karl Stiegelmayer was the second of the Philadelphia Orchestra Principal
oboes, serving in the 1901-1902 season. From 1903-1910,
Karl Stiegelmayer took the second chair
oboe position. In the Summer of 1904 at the Anne Arbor Michigan May
Festival, Karl Stiegelmayer was second oboe of the Boston Festival Orchestra,
a summer orchestra organized by Boston musicians
Emil Mollenhauer (1855-1927)
and George W. Stewart (1851-1940). His colleague
also played with the Boston Festival Orchestra during summers of this
period. Philadelphia Orchestra records show Stiegelmayer serving
in Philadelphia until the end of the 1909-1910 season, but Chicago
Symphony records show Stiegelmayer's service beginning in the
1909-1910 season. In Chicago, Karl Stiegelmayer was second
oboe of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra for eleven seasons 1909-1920.
He may then have returned ot Germany, since no other record of him
after 1920 has been located, so far.
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1902-1913 Alfred Doucet
Alfred Doucet was born in Marseille, France August 29, 1862. He
came from a musical family, he and his brother Louis L. Doucet both being
oboists. Alfred Doucet studied at the Paris Conservatoire, where he
won the Premier prix in oboe in the 1881 Concour, studying under the last
year of Charles Colin (1832-1881) at the Conservatoire before Georges Gillet
(1854-1820) became responsible for oboe at the Conservatoire.
He emigrated to the U.S. in 1888 to New Orleans, then Cincinnati, then
Philadelphia, and then New York. He was Principal oboe for the
Philadelphia Orchestra for 11 seasons from 1902 to 1913. During
this time, Doucet was also Principal oboe in the Bethlehem (Pennsylvania)
Bach Festival orchestra 1903-1905. Doucet seems to have been one
of the first chair musicians dismissed by Leopold Stokowski at the end
of his first season with the Philadelphia Orchestra. Stokowski
was interested to hire the Belgian oboist Henri de Busscher 162.
Henri de Busscher (1880–1975) was Principal oboe at the
Queens Hall Orchestra in London and later Principal of the Los Angeles
Philharmonic, but union rules prevented the Philadelphia Orchestra
from hiring him. From 1912 to 1914, Doucet recorded more
than 13 sides for Victor Talking Machine Company, including playing
in the Victor Concert Orchestra. In the 1913-1914 season Alfred
Doucet was Principal oboe of the Minneapolis Symphony. He toured
with the Bracale Opera Company to Latin America in
1917, 1918, and 1919. He and his son Louis L. Doucet (born
in France 1882) were both members of the Minneapolis Symphony.
Louis played oboe with the St. Louis Symphony 1911-1912, and
English Horn in Minneapolis 1920-1924.
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1913-1915 Attilio Francesco Marchetti
Attilio Marchetti was born in Bologna, Italy July 15, 1883.
In the 1910s. Attilio Marchetti was Principal oboe at La Scala, Milan
under Arturo Toscanini. Later, he was Principal oboe under Luigi
Mancinelli (1848-1921) at the Costanzi Theater, Rome, (later renamed the
Teatro dell'Opera di Roma 130 of which Ricardo Muti
was appointed Music Director nearly a century later). In the US,
Attilio Marchetti was initially Principal oboe of the Chicago Opera Association
orchestra under Cleofonte Campanini (1860-1919). Then, Marchetti
was selected by Stokowski as Principal oboe of the Philadelphia Orchestra
in Stokowski's second season, 1913-1914. According to correspondence,
Leopold Stokowski wanted to recruit the Belgian oboe Henri de Busscher
(1880–1975) as Principal oboe to replace Alfred Doucet, but could not
due to union problems. Stokowski settled on Marchetti, but with
the intention of only retaining him for a season 163. So,
in September, 1913, Attilio Marchetti was appointed Principal oboe of
the Philadelphia Orchestra. In fact, Marchetti lasted two seasons,
1913-1915 until Marcel Tabuteau was hired. Attilio Marchetti
performed at in the Maine Music Festivals in the early 1920s.
His arrangements for string trio of J. S. Bach suites and
tutorial books on the oboe were published in 1937. In the
1950s, he became active in the importing of woodwinds into the
U.S. He died in New York July 1965.
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1915-1954 Marcel Tabuteau
Marcel Tabuteau was born in Compiègne, in Picardy in the north of France on July 2,
1887. As a youth, he played in the local band, and in about 1900, gained admission
to the Paris Conservatoire. He studied under the legendary oboist Georges Gillet
(1854-1920). Marcel Tabuteau won the Premier prix for oboe at the Paris Conservatoire
in 1904 Concour. He was Principal oboe of the New York Symphony 1906-1908.
Marcel Tabuteau then became Principal oboe of the Metropolitan Opera orchestra
under Toscanini beginning in the 1908-1909 season. Tabuteau was Principal
oboe of the Metropolitan Opera for seven seasons, 1908-1915. Marcel Tabuteau
joined the Philadelphia Orchestra under Stokowski in the 1915-1916 season.
[this mini-biography is still
under construction: please buy and read the fascinating Tabuteau biography
by oboist and Tabuteau student Laila Storch:
Marcel Tabuteau: How Do You Expect to Play the Oboe if you Can't
Peel a Mushroom ? Indiana University Press 2008.
Laila Storch with Tabuteau and fellow oboe students Louis Rosenblatt and Laurence Thorstenberg
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1954-1977 John Sherwood de Lancie
John de Lancie, left, with Anthony Gigliotti, clarinet, Bernard Garfield, bassoon,
Mason Jones, horn in 1970
John de Lancie was born in Berkeley, California, July 26, 1921.
He studied there with
, clarinet of the San Francisco Symphony for 25 seasons.
In 1963, at age 14, John de Lancie came to Philadelphia to attend
the Curtis Institute of Music as a student of Marcel Tabuteau.
De Lancie graduated from Curtis in the Class of 1940. He then
joined the Pittsburgh Symphony in 1940 under Fritz Reiner, and in 1942
entered the U.S. Army. Following World War 2, John de Lancie
joined the Philadelphia Orchestra oboe section in 1946. Subsequent
to the retirement of his teacher Marcel Tabuteau, John de Lance became
Principal oboe of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1954-1955 season.
John de Lancie had met Richard Strauss in Germany in 1945 following the
end of World War 2 and suggested to Strauss to write his first and only
Oboe Concerto. Although Strauss instructed
his publisher that de Lancie should have rights to the first US performance,
de Lancie was not able to do so. First, Marcel Tabuteau made it clear
that he, and not de Lancie was Principal of the oboe section.
Second, Eugene Ormandy was of the opinion that the Strauss concerto
was an inferior piece 148. Ironically, it was not
until 10 years after his retirement that de Lance performed the Strauss
Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra. John de Lancie served
on the Curtis Institute faculty as instructor of oboe and woodwind
ensemble for more than 25 years. In 1977, John de Lancie
retired from the Philadelphia Orchestra and became Director of
the Curtis Institute. However, it seems that his tenure at
Curtis was sometimes stormy. His London Independent obituary
said: "...But his insistence on high standards and his inability
to compromise brought friction, which came to a head when he brought
the Romanian conductor Sergiu Celibidache to America for the first time,
for a concert with the Symphony Orchestra of the Curtis Institute in
Carnegie Hall, in 1984. Celibidache's extravagant demands, in money
and time, provoked a rift between de Lancie and his administrators
and board, and in 1985 he resigned..." 148.
After his retirement, John de Lancie was also Dean of the New World
School in Miami, after which de Lancie returned to his roots in
California, joining the faculty of the San Francisco Conservatory
of Music until 1992. John de Lancie and his wife Andrea had
two children, including son John de Lancie the actor, perhaps best
known for his role as "Q" in Star Trek: The New Gerneration.
John de Lancie died in Walnut Creek, not far from his Berkeley,
California birthplace on May 17, 2002.
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1977-present Richard Clarence Woodhams
Richard Woodhams was born in Palo Alto, California on June 17, 1949 in a
family that had pioneered the settlement of the San Francisco peninsula.
He came from a musical family, his father Clifton H. Woodhams, Jr. (1915-2003)
being an enthusiastic trumpet and violin musician in local music groups.
Clifford passed this love of music on to sons Richard and Thomas.
The sons were aided in musical experience by Clifton Woodhams co-founding
the California Youth Symphony in 1952.
Richard Woodhams also studied at the at the Music Academy of the West in
California in the summer of 1961.
In 1965, age 16, Richard Woodhams entered the Curtis Institute, where
he studied oboe with John de Lancie. Richard Woodhams graduated from Curtis
in the Class of 1968. His older brother Thomas Woodhams had studied bassoon
at Curtis, graduating in the Class of 1965. Richard Woodhams was Principal
oboe of the St. Louis Symphony 1969-1977, when he left to become Principal
oboe of the Philadelphia Orchestra. In Richard Woodhams succeeded John de
Lancie as oboe Professor at the Curtis Institute in 1986. So, both the Philadelphia
Orchestra and the Curtis Institute continued their remarkable heritage as being among
the founders of the modern US school of oboes playing, continuing the Tabuteau and
de Lancie heritage.
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William Kincaid, flute and Marcel Tabuteau, oboe,
during the 1936 Philadelphia transcontinental US tour
Principal Bassoons of the Philadelphia Orchestra
1900-1901 Oskar Max Modess
Oskar Modess, with wife Anna, sons Walter and Edgar in 1922
Oskar Modess was born in Mittweida (between Leipzig and Dresden),
Germany on January 12, 1868. He was recruited by Theodore Thomas to the
Chicago Orchestra and emigrated to the U.S. in April, 1893. Modess
was Principal bassoon of the Chicago Symphony 1893-1895. He was then
selected by Fritz Scheel as the first Principal bassoon of the newly formed
Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1900-1901 season. Modess left the
Philadelphia Orchestra after one season and went to New York City, where
he played in New York concerts. Oskar Modess joined the John Philip
Sousa Band in 1910-1911 and went on their 1911 around-the-world tour to
England, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Modess produced
a widely used bassoon teaching chart in 1916. In the 1920s and 1930s,
Oskar Modess played oboe in New York City theater and hotel orchestras.
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1906-1907 William Otto Gruner
William Gruner in 1923
William Gruner was born in Berlin, Germany January 12, 1883, and
emigrated to the U.S. in April, 1906 to join the Philadelphia
Orchestra at the invitation of Fritz Scheel.
William Gruner was a long time member of the Philadelphia
Orchestra, playing bassoon from 1906-1917 and 1929-1951.
He was Principal in his first year with the Orchestra, and third
bassoon thereafter23. He began playing bassoon
for the Victor Talking Machine Company from 1917 until at least
1929 including on Blue Seal and Red Seal disks. Much of this
recording was with the Victor Orchestra, the house recording
orchestra conducted by Josef Pasternack (1881-1940).
One of William Gruner's best recordings was of the Weber
Hungarian Fantasy opus 35 in October, 1926, an early
Victor electrical recording. William Gruner was also
active as a conductor of local semi-professional orchestras
in suburban Philadelphia, including also Music Director of the
Delaware County Music Club and also the Concert Society of
Upper Darby, both in the 1920s 185)
William Gruner retired
from the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1951. Gruner
participated in the Robin Hood Dell concert in 1962 that
commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of Leopold Stokowski
joining the Philadelphia Orchestra, Gruner being born only 9
months after Stokowski. William Gruner died in
suburban Philadelphia in February, 1971, age 88.
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1908-1909 Paul Pieschel
Paul Pieschel was born in Germany in December 1856. He
emigrated to the U.S. in 1880. He played in the Buffalo
Philharmonic Society orchestra at least in the 1884-1885 season
37. Pieschel was active in New York orchestras
in the 1890s. Pieschel was appointed Principal bassoon by Karl
Pohlig when he took over the Philadelphia Orchestra in the
1908-1909 season, but left the orchestra after that single
season. Pieschel then relocated to the New York City area,
living in Connecticut. In the 1910s, he both organized concerts
and conducted concerts in the Connecticut area near Yale University.
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1912-1915 Benjamin Kohon
Benjamin Kohon while at NY Philharmonic in 1938
Benjamin Kohon was born in Odessa in the Ukrainian on July 6, 1890. He came
to the U.S. with his family in 1895, and began bassoon instruction at age 11
with his father Marcus, also a bassoonist. By 1906, he was already of
bassoonist with the Russian Symphony Orchestra. Beginning in the 1908
season, Benjamin Kohon was appointed solo bassoon of the New York
Philharmonic under Gustav Mahler where he stayed 1908-1912, He
went to the Philadelphia Orchestra as Principal bassoon from 1912-1915. Then,
like Daniel Bonade, Kohon joined Diaghilev's Ballet Russe American tours in
1915 and 1916. The first summer in 1915 was under Ansermet, which group
also recorded Schumann under Ansermet for Columbia Graphophone - disk
A5845 in 1915. The second tour was in the summer of 1916 under Pierre
Monteux. Kohon said that he did this because of the opportunity to
travel. He was in the US Navy Band during World War 1, and in 1919,
he joined the New York National Symphony which in 1921 merged with the
New York Philharmonic, so Kohon was again Principal or solo
bassoon of that symphony, where he remained until at least 1942. Kohon
died in Beverly Hills, California on April 28, 1984, aged 93.
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1901-1906, 1907-1908, 1909-1912,
1915-1922.1915-1922 Richard Krueger (or Krüger)
Richard Krueger was born in Helgoland, Germany, a tiny island 50 km off the
coast of Germany in the North Sea in 1872. Krueger emigrated to the
U.S. in 1901, and joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as Principal bassoon
under Fritz Scheel in the second season, 1901-1902. Richard Krueger
was Principal bassoon under each of the first three Music Directors of the
Philadelphia Orchestra, coming and going, perhaps taking higher salary offers
form other orchestras. Krueger was Principal bassoon under Fritz Scheel
1901-1906, under Karl Pohlig 1907-1908 and 1909-1912, and finally with Leopold
Stokowski 1915-1922. This made for a total of seventeen seasons
with the Philadelphia Orchestra (but you need a scorecard to keep track).
During summers, when orchestra musicians needed to find employment, Richard
Krueger was active in the May festivals popular in that era. Krueger
played with the Boston Festival Orchestra, a group organized by
Emil Mollenhauer and George W. Stewart
of the Boston Symphony, one of summer
orchestras of the 1890s and 1900s. These summer orchestras were
filled with talent; for example, the other bassoon in this festival
orchestra was Hugo Litke, one time Principal in the Boston Symphony
and the Chicago Symphony. Krueger left Philadelphia during the
1906-1907 season, but returned for the 1907-1908 season. Richard
Krueger then left Philadelphia again to become was Principal bassoon in
the Theodore Thomas - Chicago Symphony Orchestra for one season
1908 - 1909. Krueger again returned to Philadelphia, as
Principal bassoon, where he remained 1909-1912. After 3 seasons
away, Leopold Stokowski again appointed Richard Krueger Principal
bassoon of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1915-1922. Richard
Krueger also was an accomplished flutist. In 1920, for example
Richard Krueger accompanied pianist Olga Samaroff (Leopold
Stokowski's wife at the time) in Beethoven, with Krueger playing
both bassoon and flute. In 1930, Richard Krueger still resided
in the Philadelphia area, and was listed as being a theater musician.
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1922-1937 Julius Walter Guetter
Walter Guetter in the 1935
Walter Guetter was born in Philadelphia on April 17, 1895,
where his parents had emigrated from Germany in 1892.
His father Julius was a violin maker, and initially, Walter studied
the violin from age 9 to 14 41. Walter went to
Germany at the age of 15 to study bassoon for four years with
his uncle, Adolf Guetter at the Klindworth-Scharwenka
Conservatory of Music in Berlin 1910-1914. Adolf Guetter
had studied under Julius Weissenborn (1837-1888), who was
Principal bassoon with the the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra
from 1857-1887. Adolf Guetter had played
Principal bassoon with the Boston Symphony under Artur
Nikisch from 1891-1894. On Walter's return to the
U.S. in early 1915, he briefly played with the Philadelphia
Orchestra, but after auditioning during the Summer of 1915,
he entered the Chicago Symphony Orchestra for the 1915-1916
season. The next two seasons, 1916-1918 he became
Principal oboe of the Chicago Symphony
, and then after a year off for service in World War 1, returned
to Chicago as Principal bassoon for three seasons 1919-1922.
In the 1922-1923 season, Walter Guetter returned to his native
Philadelphia as Principal oboe under Stokowski. This formed,
as a result, the Orchestra's famous wind group of Walter Guetter bassoon,
Marcel Tabuteau, oboe, and William Kincaid, flute, the three of whom
played together for the next fifteen seasons. Walter Guetter
was sickly all during the 1930s, and according to an interview with
Sol Schoenbach, Guetter took off one season in the mid-1930s, when
he was succeeded by
Ferdinand Del Negro
. To experience the magic of Walter Guetter's artistry, listen to the
1929 Sacre du Printemps
or the November,
1935 Stravinsky Firebird Suite
. On May 1, 1937, Walter Guetter, who had been in frail health for a
number of years, died of cancer aged only 42.
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1937-1944, 1946-1957 Sol Israel Schoenbach
Sol Schoenbach was born on March 15, 1915 in New York City of parents who
emigrated from Austria in 1901. His family was not particularly musical,
but Sol studied with the (later famous) bassoon teacher Simon Kovar (1890-1970).
When Schoenbach was offered a scholarship at the Institute of Musical
Art (later the Julliard School), he insisted that Simon Kovar (not yet well known)
be his teacher. This resulted in Simon Kovar joining the Julliard
faculty. 19 From 1932 until 1937, Sol Schoenbach was a studio musician
for the CBS staff radio orchestra. The radio orchestra had the advantage
of year-around employment at a time when even the New York Philharmonic musicians
only had 30 weeks of guaranteed employment. Then, in 1937, Sol Schoenbach
had a successful audition with Eugene Ormandy, and joined the Philadelphia Orchestra,
age 22 as Principal bassoon. Schoenbach succeeded the recently deceased
Walter Guetter. In the summer of 1940, Sol Schoenbach joined the American
Youth Orchestra tour of South America with Leopold Stokowski (see photo above)
Stokowski reinforced the AAYO with professionals, although young professionals from
Philadelphia and New York. During World War 2, Sol Schoenbach was in 1944 and 1945 in
the Army Band in Fort Hamilton, Brooklyn. This was favorable duty for Schoenbach,
since on leave weekends, he could be in New York City with his family. Sol
Schoenbach was discharged February 12, 1946. The day before his discharge, he
had made a famous recording of the Stravinsky Pastorale with Joseph Szigeti (1892-1973)
, violin and Mitch Miller (1911-2010), oboe. Sol Schoenbach then returned to
Philadelphia and where
had been Principal bassoon while Schoenbach was in the Army. In the end,
Sol Schoenbach regained the Principal bassoon chair in Philadelphia for the
1946-1947 season, and George Goslee went back to a long career as Principal
bassoon of the Cleveland Orchestra. Schoenbach remained Principal
bassoon of the Philadelphia Orchestra for another 11 seasons. Schoenbach
retired from the Philadelphia Orchestra at the end of the 1956-1957 season,
having served a total of eighteen seasons. Still age only 42, Sol
Schoenbach had accepted the position of Executive Director for the Settlement
School of Music, a well-known in Philadelphia music school. Sol
Schoenbach was also President of the International Double Reed Society
1981-1984. Schoenbach served at the Settlement Music School until
his retirement in 1981 at age 66.
Sol Schoenbach died in suburban Philadelphia February 25, 1999.
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1944-1945 Ferdinand Gaetano Del Negro
Ferdinand Del Negro with his contrabassoon 1935
Ferdinand Del Negro in November 24, 1896 in New York City to Italian
parents. His father, Luca Del Negro (1873-1940) was a tuba player
in the New York Symphony from 1916 until it merger with the Philharmonic
and then long term with the New York Philharmonic. Ferdinand,
called "Del" by his friends, he was for 40
years, from 1922-1962 a bassoon and contrabassoon player in the
Philadelphia Orchestra. Del Negro was self-taught on the
bassoon 30. During World War 1, Ferdinand Del Negro
served on the presidential yacht "Mayflower". He
then returned to New York where he became a life-long friend of
, previously Principal bassoon of the Philadelphia Orchestra and then of
the New York Philharmonic. Del Negro came to Philadelphia to play
in the Fairmount Park summer concerts in about 1921. As a
result, he was invited to join the Philadelphia Orchestra bassoon
section for the 1922-1923 season, playing primarily contrabassoon.
In the mid 1930s when Walter Guetter was ill with developing cancer,
Ferdinand Del Negro replaced
. He was also teaching oboe at the Curtis Institute. During
World War 2, with Sol Schoenbach in the Army, Ferdinand Del Negro was
rewarded by being named for one season Principal bassoon of the
Philadelphia Orchestra. After Del Negro reached compulsory
retirement in 1962, he continued teaching bassoon at the
Settlement Music School in Philadelphia. See Del Negro and read about
the use of the contrabassoon in early Philadelphia Orchestra recordings by
Continued use of Contrabassoon
. Ferdinand Del Negro died May, 1986 in Camden, New Jersey, where he had
lived for more than 60 years.
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1945-1946 George F. Goslee
George Goslee was born December 31, 1916 in Ohio, and grew up in Cleveland.
He took up the bassoon at age 12 and later studied with Charles Kayser,
bassoon of the Cleveland Orchestra (1925-1936). Goslee studied at the
Eastman School of Music with Vincent Pezzi, who was Principal bassoon of the
Rochester Symphony. In his last two years at the Eastman School in 1938
and 1939, George Goslee also played with the Rochester Philharmonic and the
Rochester Civic Orchestra. In late 1939, Goslee went to New York and
studied with Simon Kovar (1890-1970 and teacher of Sol Schoenbach and others).
Goslee played with the Indianapolis Symphony 1941-1943. During
the next two seasons, from 1943-1945 Goslee was Principal bassoon in Cleveland,
and the joined Philadelphia Orchestra for the 1945-1946 season. When
returned from service in World War 2, there was a controversy as to who
would be Principal bassoon in Philadelphia. Schoenbach prevailed,
taking the Principal chair for the 1946-1947 season, and George Goslee
then returned in 1946 to Cleveland as Principal bassoon with newly
arrived George Szell. Goslee remained with the Cleveland Orchestra
with a distinguished career until he retired in August,1988. George
Goslee also taught at the Aspen Music Festival. George
Goslee died October 19, 2006, aged 89 with good health until just days
before his death.
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1957-1999 Bernard Howard Garfield
Bernard Garfield (you can always recognize that black bassoon)
Bernard Garfield was born in May, 1924. During World War 2, Garfield
was in the U.S. Army 1943-1946. In 1945, presumably while in the
Army, Bernard Garfield studied at the Royal College of
Music in London, where he received an ARCM degree (Associate
of the Royal College of Music). After discharge, Garfield
studied in New York City, gaining a BA in English Literature from
New York University, and a MA in Music from Columbia University.
Garfield also taught, performed and studied at the Aspen Music Festival
In 1946, Bernard Garfield, with John Barrows founded the New York
Woodwind Quintet 55, which Garfield directed until 1957.
The members of the New York Woodwind Quintet
at that time were Samuel Baron, flute, Jerold Roth, oboe, David Glazer,
clarinet, John Barrows, horn and Bernard Garfield, bassoon
55. During about the same period, Garfield was also
Principal bassoon of the Little Orchestra Society of New York, a group
organized by Thomas Scherman in 1947 for smaller scale orchestral works
56. This was overlapping with his work 1950-1957
as Pincipal bassoon of the Orchestra of the New York City Ballet.
In 1957, Bernard Garfield won the audition with the Philadelphia Orchestra
where he became Principal oboe in the 1957-1958 season. Bernard
Garfield was Garfield remained Principal bassoon of the Philadelphia
Orchestra for 42 seasons, retiring at the end of the 1998-1999 season.
During this time, he also taught at Temple University, where he retired in
2004, and at the Curtis Institute, from which he retired in 2008. As
well as simply teaching Garfield's students have also commented on his deep
and continuing interest in them and encouragement
of their careers. Bernard Garfield has been admired
by his colleagues not only for tone and depth of his
bassoon playing, but also for his sense of humor.
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2000-present Daniel Matsukawa
Daniel Matsukawa was born in 1968 in Argentina to Japanese parents. When
Matsukawa was three, his family moved to New York City. There, Daniel Matsukawa
took up the bassoon at age 13. Daniel Matsukawa was then a scholarship student
at the pre-college division of Juilliard and of the Manhattan School of Music,
where he studied with Harold Goltzer and Alan Futterman. In New York,
Daniel Matsukawa made his solo concerto debut in Carnegie Hall in 1986 at the
age of eighteen. Matsukawa studied at the Julliard School for two
years before being admitted to the Curtis Institute, where he graduated in the
Class of 1992. At Curtis, Daniel Matsukawa studied with his predecessor, former
Philadelphia Orchestra Principal bassoon Bernard Garfield. In the mid-1990s,
Daniel Matsukawa was Principal bassoon for the Virginia Symphony. He was also
Principal bassoon of the the St. Louis Symphony, and the Memphis Symphony.
Daniel Matsukawa was named Principal bassoon of the National Symphony Orchestra
of Washington DC in the 1997-1998 season. After three seasons in
Washington, Daniel Matsukawa was appointed Principal bassoon of the Philadelphia
Orchestra, joining a long tradition of double-reed excellence. Critics
have uniformly praised the music-making of Daniel Matsukawa, such as this
Philip Kennicott quote: "...As an orchestral player, he can be relied
on for a burst of rich maroon and dark crimson in the collective sound.
His playing is elastic and agile, and thankfully accurate." 147.
Principal Clarinets of the Philadelphia Orchestra
1900-1901 Henry J. Weissenborn
Henry Weissenborn was born in California in 1876 of German
émigrés from Hanover, Germany. He was the Principal
clarinet of the Philadelphia Orchestra for six concerts in
the first season of the Philadelphia Orchestra, 1900-1901.
Henry Weissenborn returned to the clarinet section of the
Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1903-1904 season.
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1901-1913 Fritz Dieterichs
Fritz or Frederich Dieterichs was born in Brunswick (Braunschweig), in
the north of Germany on February 29, 1872. He emigrated to the U.S.
in November, 1901 to take up his position as Principal clarinet of the
Philadelphia Orchestra. He became a U.S. citizen in June, 1907.
While in Philadelphia, during the summers, Fritz Dieterichs was regularly
Principal clarinet in the Boston Festival Orchestra, a summer orchestra
George W. Stewart, with Emil Mollenhauer
, made up of Boston Symphony Musicians, and orchestra musicians from
New York and Philadelphia which played the summer festivals in the
1890s and 1900s. Fritz Dieterichs remained Principal clarinet
of the Philadelphia Orchestra for nearly 12 seasons. However,
Dieterichs did not complete the 1912-1913 season in Philadelphia,
indicating that he may have been one of the Philadelphia musicians
peremptorily dismissed by Stokowski during his first season as
Music Director in Philadelphia.
Fitz Dieterichs departure from Philadelphia at the end of the 1912-1913
season After leaving the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1913,
Fritz Dieterichs remained in Philadelphia as a theater musician.
In the 1950s, Fritz Dieterichs was still living in Philadelphia.
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1913-1917 Robert Lindemann
Robert Lindemann in 1921
Robert Lindemann was born in Paderborn, Germany in modern-day
North Rhine-Westphalia on January 28, 1884. He studied
first with his father Eduard Lindemann. Robert Lindemann
emigrated to the U.S. at age 27 in September, 1911. He moved
first to Minnesota, where in about 1911-1913, he was appointed Principal
clarinet with the Saint Paul Symphony Orchestra 130
(which later merged with the Minneapolis Symphony). Then,
in the 1913-1914 season Robert Lindemann moved to Philadelphia,
where he was appointed Principal clarinet of the Philadelphia
Orchestra, following the abrupt dismissal of Fritz Dieterichs
by the new Principal conductor, Leopold Stokowski. Robert
Lindemann remained Principal clarinet for four seasons 1913-1917.
It seems likely that Stokowski again dismissed his Principal
clarinet, and Lindemann did not return to Philadelphia in 1917-1918.
Robert Lindemann then moved to New York, where he was appointed
Principal clarinet of the New York Symphony in 1918-1923 under
conductor Walter Damrosch. Robert Lindemann was then appointed
Principal clarinet of the Chicago Symphony by Frederick Stock in the
1923-1924 season. Robert Lindemann then had a long service with
the Chicago Symphony Orchestra from 1923-1949, a 26 year term.
Lindemann had survived not only Frederick Stock, but also Désiré Defauw,
and Artur Rodzinski, so he must have been able. He was succeeded
during the term of Rafael Kubelik by Mitchell Lurie (who only lasted one
season under Kubelik). During his first season in
Chicago, Rafael Kubelik tried to replace 22 of the orchestra's musicians,
so perhaps it was not surprising that he retired Robert Lindemann who
was age 65. In Chicago, Robert Lindemann also played in the
Chicago Woodwind Quintet in the 1930s. Robert Lindemann died
in Everett, Washington in October, 1975, age 91, after a rich and
varied career consistently at the top of his profession.
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1917-1922 Daniel Bonade
entry for 1924).
1922-1923 Georges Grisez
Georges Grisez in 1921
Georges Grisez was born in Paris on March 31, 1884. He likely
studied clarinet with the famous Arthur Grisez (not his father, perhaps
an uncle?). He studied at the Paris Conservatoire, taking his prix
in about 1903. Then elected to the clarinet section of
the Société des Concerts du Conservatoire Orchestra 1903-1904.
Georges Grisez came to the US in October, 1904 aged 20 to become Principal
clarinet of the Boston Symphony Orchestra from 1904-1914. During that
period, he played with his close friend
Georges Longy, Principal oboe of the Boston Symphony
, in the Georges Longy Club, a wind chamber group 35.
Georges Grisez made several acoustic recordings of clarinet
excerpts in 1913 for Phono-Cut records of Boston. Georges
Grisez returned to France during World War 1, active in the French
Army. Following the was, Grisez returned to the US, wher he was
in the clarinet section of the New York Symphony. He was a member
of the New York Chamber Society in 1921. He played the Brahms
Clarinet Quintet with the Letz Quartet at the Maverick Concerts at
Woodstock in 1921. He was principal clarinet of the Philadelphia
Orchestra for the 1922-1923 season, but it seems that his contract
was not renewed by Stokowski. Grisez was Principal clarinet
of the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra 1923-about 1934.
1927-1934, Georges Grisez taught clarinet at the University of
Minnesota 34. Georges Grisez joined the NBC Symphony
in its initial season in 1938. Alexander Williams
was Principal clarinet during most of the NBC years. Williams was
solo clarinet at the New York Philharmonic under Toscanini, who brought
Williams to the NBC Symphony. Georges Grisez then became Principal clarinet
of the Baltimore Symphony, where in fact he died, during a performance.
In 1946 Grisez was on stage with the Baltimore Symphony when he collapsed
performing the opening glissando of Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue (1924),
and later died aged only 52 25. Georges Grisez's later
successor as Principal clarinet of the Philadelphia Orchestra, Ricardo Morales
said in an interview that the exposed opening glissando of the Rhapsody in Blue
is "one of the scariest to play"...Why? Because everyone knows how it
goes, and if it is not quire right, everyone immediately notices...".
Perhaps this also had an effect on even as great a clarinet player as Georges
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1923-1924 Rufus Mont Arey
Rufus Arey was born in Vinalhaven, Maine in February 28, 1887
from a long line of the Arey family of Maine. He was the fourth
generation son to bear the Rufus Arey name. His father was a
wholesale grocer in Maine Arey studied clarinet in Boston.
Arey the played as Solo clarinet for the Brooklyn Mark Strand Orchestra,
a theater orchestra, which also played for silent movies 58.
From about 1919-1924, Rufus Arey was Principal clarinet of the
Detroit Symphony. Elizabeth Gunlogson in a doctoral thesis
152 quotes a former student of Rufus Arey as to his hiring
and subsequent departure from Philadelphia:
"...In 1924 [was 1923], the Detroit Symphony on tour passed through Philadelphia.
Arey auditioned for Leopold Stokowski...The audition lasted for an hour [and]
He got the job, but at the same salary that he was receiving in Detroit
($125.00 per week). It seems that this was more than the Philadelphia Orchestra
had ever paid a first clarinet player. He accepted with the understanding that
a raise would be forthcoming for the next season. After the 1925 [was 1924] season
...he asked for his promised raise... Stokowski had stated that he was gratified that
they had finally found a clarinet player who could play in tune. Arey felt secure.
But the promised raise was not forthcoming, so, in a moment of anger, Arey
refused the contract and quit the orchestra..."
After leaving the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1923, Rufus Arey
was a long-time section teacher of clarinet at the Eastman School of Music
1927-1954 152. In Rochester, Arey also performed with the
Rochester Philharmonic and the Eastman Wind Ensemble. Rufus Arey died in
his family home in Vinalhaven, Maine in December 1966.
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1917-1922, 1924-1930 Daniel Louis Bonade
Daniel Bonade in the 1950s
Daniel Bonade was born on April 4, 1894 in Geneva, Switzerland, of
French parents. He studied clarinet at the Paris Conservatoire
in the clarinet class of Prosper Mimart and also studied with Henri
Lefebvre, clarinet of the Paris Opera. Bonade won clarinet Premier
prix at the Paris Conservatoire in the 1913 Concour. In 1915
in Paris, Daniel Bonade played clarinet in the Garde républicaine Band,
along with fellow-clarinetist and later Philadelphia Orchestra
. Daniel Bonade
relocated to the U.S., initially to New York City in March, 1915, at age
20. In 1916, Bonade joined Diaghilev's Ballet Russe second American
tour under Ernest Ansermet. Bonade then joined the Philadelphia
Orchestra in 1917 as Principal clarinet when Leopold Stokowski decided
to replace Robert Lindemann. Bonade stayed in Philadelphia until
the end of the 1921-1922 season. During the 1922 and 1923 seasons
Bonade was touring and playing concerts in France, Italy, Switzerland,
Belgium and England. He then returned to the Philadelphia Orchestra
as Principal clarinet in 1924 when the Philadelphia Orchestra could not
reach agreement with Rufus Arey to continue Arey's contract Daniel
Bonade was again Principal clarinet in Philadelphia until the end of the
1929-1930 season when he was succeeded by Louis deSantis, his predecessor
in Cleveland. During 1931-1933 Daniel Bonade was Principal clarinet
with the CBS Radio Symphony in New York City, providing year-around
employment, compared with the limited seasons of contemporary symphony
orchestras. Then, from 1933 to 1940 he was Principal clarinet with
the Cleveland Orchestra. Bonade joined the Toscanini-NBC Symphony
tour to South America in the summer of 1940. In 1942, Daniel Bonade
again played for the CBS Radio Orchestra. While in New York, Bonade
also taught at the Julliard from the 1940s until 1960. From the
1930s until their departure for France, Daniel and his wife Maud Bonade
retained a permanent residence in Bucks County, Pennsylvania.
While in the US, nearly every Summer, except the war years, the Bonades
also sailed for France. In fact, during the 1920s and 1930s,
Bonade seemed to have crossed the Atlantic by steamship at least 9
times. Bonade was a US citizen from 1920. He retired to
Cannes on the south coast of France in 1960, where he died in
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1930-1931 (Julius) Louis deSantis
Louis deSantis born April 22, 1880 at Torino di Sangro in the
Abruzzo Region of Italy. Louis deSantis emigrated to the
US in about 1916. In the early 1920s, Louis deSantis was
clarinet of Chicago Lyric Opera. He then joined the Saint
Louis Symphony in about 1924-1926.
In the 1926-1927 season, Nikolai Sokoloff selected deSantis as
Principal clarinet of the Cleveland Orchestra. deSantis
remained in Cleveland for three seasons. Then, deSantis
was selected as Principal clarinet of the Philadelphia Orchestra
in the 1930-1931 season. Since the failure to re-hire
Rufus Arey in 1924, Stokowski had been generally satisfired with
Daniel Bonade as Principal. However, at the end of the 1929-1930
season, Stokowski made sweeping changes to the Philadelphia
Orchestra roster, including replacement of several Principals,
including Daniel Bonade. Stokowski hired Louis deSantis,
but this lasted only one season 1930-1931. During that
same season, Stokowski had hired the young Robert McGinnis directly
out of the Curtis Institute into the Philadelphia Orchestra clarinet
section. In the next season, 1931-1931, Stokowski elevated
Robert McGinnis to the Principal clarinet chair, and Louis deSantis
departed. During 1930-1935, Louis deSantis
was Principal clarinet with the CBS radio Orchestra under
Howard Barlow (1892-1972). This was a desirable post during
the Depression years, since it was year-around employment, unlike
any of the symphony orchestras of that era. Also, although
generally forgotted today, Howard Barlow was a generally gifted and
interesting conductor. His only conducting training was
apparently some brief lessons from Wilberforce Whiteman, father
of Paul Whiteman. Similarly, his knowledge of instruments,
including the cello and wind instruments was essentially self-taught.
Howard Barlow was conductor of the CBS radio orchestra from
1927-1943, and from 1943-1959 on NBC radio and then television,
with the the long-running Voice of Firestone orchestral
programs. As to Louis deSantis, the early 1940s, he was
a member of the Philadelphia region WPA Orchestra, according to
World War 2 draft records. Louis deSantis seems to have
continued to reside in suburban Philadelphia, where he
died prior to 1960. Contemporary writers considered Louis
deSantis's clarinet style (although he was Italian-born) to be
French in style, somewhat like Daniel Bonade or Gaston Hamlin
of the Boston Symphony.
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1931-1940 Robert E. McGinnis
Robert McGinnis was born in Delaware County, west of Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania on February 1, 1910. His father, Claude Stonecliffe
McGinnis (1881-1964) was a Physics professor at Temple University,
Philadelphia, but also an amateur clarinetist. Robert
McGinnis was a student of Daniel Bonade at the
Curtis Institute from 1925, graduating in May, 1930. McGinnis
joined the Philadelphia Orchestra in the Autumn of 1930, and
became Principal clarinet 1931-1940. During the 1940-1941
season, McGinnis was the Principal clarinet of the Cleveland
Orchestra under Rodzinski. During World War 2, 1942-1945, he was
in the U.S. Navy Band. Following the War, he returned to the
Cleveland Orchestra as Principal clarinet for one season,
1945-1946. Then, in the 1947-1948 season, McGinnis was Principal
clarinet of the NBC Symphony under Toscanini, and also taught at
Juilliard. McGinnis then moved to the New York Philharmonic as
Principal clarinet 1948-1960. At the end of the 1959-1960
season, Robert McGinnis retired from the New York Philharmonic
and then taught clarinet at Indiana University 1960-1963. After
McGinnis, Stanley Drucker became Principal clarinet of the New
York Philharmonic beginning with the 1960-1961 season. In an
interesting posting on Klarinet Archive, Daniel Leeson wrote:
"…I recently received a charming note from Sara McGinnis
Thomson, daughter of the late Robert McGinnis, among other
things formerly first clarinet in the New York Philharmonic,
immediately preceding the extended and remarkable tenure of the
current principle player Stanley Drucker. She wrote to me
because of a posting I made on the Klarinet some time ago and in
which I spoke of seeing McGinnis playing with Paul LaValle's
Band of America at the World's Fair in New York City in 1964. My
comments at that time were that I was shocked that a player of
McGinnis' competence was reduced to playing a couple of shows a
day under Paul LaValle, and she said, "To my knowledge, dad had
to play those gigs to bring money in. He could not hold an
orchestral position anymore because he was debilitated by
arthritis and was in constant and severe pain. He passed away in
1976 of a heart attack." * Robert McGinnis finished his
orchestral career playing Co-Principal clarinet (with Philip
Fath) with the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra under Joseph
Krips 1964-1969. After a remarkable career playing with a long
series of leading U.S. orchestras, Robert McGinnis died on
January 1, 1976 in Huntington, New York.
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1940-1943 Bernard Portnoy
Bernard Portnoy (photograph by Zinn, Arthur, and Kufeld, n.d. Courtesy of the
Cleveland Orchestra Archives)
Bernard Portnoy was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on December 4,
1914. His parents, Bennie and Rachael Portnoy were Russian-Jewish
émigrés from the Ukraine who came to Pittsburgh in 1906. Bernard
Portnoy began playing the clarinet at age 13. In about 1931, Bernard
gained admission to the Curtis Institute, where he studied with
. McGinnis and Portnoy shared an interesting number of Principal
clarinet positions over their careers, including of the Cleveland
Orchestra, the NBC Symphony, and the Philadelphia Orchestra.
Bernard Portnoy graduated from Curtis in the Class of 1937.
Following graduation, Bernard Portnoy was appointed Principal clarinet
of the Pittsburgh Symphony by Fritz Reiner, serving from about
1937-1940. In the 1940-1941 season, Bernard Portnoy
returned to Philadelphia to join the Eugene Ormandy and the
Philadelphia Orchestra as Principal clarinet. Portnoy
remained in Philadelphia as Principal for four seasons 1940-1943.
During World War 2, beginning in 1943, Portnoy entered
the US Merchant Marine, although he remained on the official
roster of the Philadelphia Orchestra until 1946. At the
conclusion of World War 2, in 1946, Portnoy was not returned
to the Principal clarinet position in Philadelphia, so is listed
as Philadelphia Principal clarinet 1940-1943.
There are some accounts that Portnoy had alienated certain of his
Philadelphia colleagues. Instead, in 1946 he joined the
Cleveland Orchestra. Bernard Portnoy went to Cleveland in
George Szell's second season as Music Director, 1947-1948.
Portnoy remained in Cleveland for six seasons. Then in 1953,
Portnoy joined the NBC Symphony for the last two seasons of
Arturo Toscanini tenure. After the NBC Symphony, remaining
in New York, Portnoy was a New York sessions musician and played on
Broadway, including the Broadway cast recording of My Fair Lady
with Rex Harrison and Julie Andrews. In New York, Portnoy also
played regularly in the WOR Mutual Broadcasting Orchestra, which had
the advantage of year-around employment (unlike any of the symphony
orchestras of that era other than the Boston Symphony).
While in Philadelphia, Portnoy taught at the Curtis Institute,
and then at the Julliard School in the 1950s and early 1960s
while in New York City. For example,
, later also Principal clarinet of the Cleveland
Orchestra studied with Bernard Portnoy at Juilliard. Then
for 20 years, Bernard Portnoy taught clarinet at Indiana University
in the 1970s and 1980s. In his retirement from orchestra life,
and while at Indiana University, Bernard Portnoy became a successful
designer and manufacturer of clarinet mouthpieces and ligatures.
Bernard Portnoy died in Marin County, California, north of San Francisco,
on December 2, 2006, two days before his 92nd birthday. You
can hear Bernard Portnoy in his prime in 1940 with Leopold Stokowski and
the Philadelphia Orchestra
in the Mozart Sinfonia concertante by clicking here.
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1943-1951 Ralph McLane
Ralph McLane was born in Lynn, Massachusetts on December 19,
1907. McLane was a student of
, Principal clarinet of the Boston Symphony Orchestra.
When at the end of the 1930-1931 season, Hamelin's contract with the
Boston Symphony was nor renewed, because, apparently, Koussevitzky did
not approve of him playing a metal clarinet, Hamelin returned to
Paris. Ralph McLane followed Hamelin to Paris to study
clarinet with him. McLane gave the premiere performance of the
Aaron Copland Clarinet Concert in New York City on November 24,
1950 with Eugene Ormandy and the Philadelphia Orchestra.
This was the first public performanc, following the Benny Goodman
radio premiere with Fritz Reiner and the NBC Symphony
on November 6, 1950. Ralph McLane served with the
Philadelphia Orchestra for eight seasons. Unfortunately,
Ralph McLane died during his last 1950-1951 season of cancer
in New York City on February 18, 1951, age only 43.
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1949-1996 Anthony M. Gigliotti
Anthony M. Gigliotti was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May
13, 1922. His father, Joseph Gigliotti, was also a
well-known clarinet soloist and teacher. After studying
with his father, Anthony Gigliotti gained entrance to the Curtis
Institute in about 1939. At Curtis, he studied with Daniel
Bonade from about 1939 - 1942. After serving in World War 2, Gigliotti
graduated from Curtis in 1946. In 1946-1949, he played in the
Orchestra of the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo and in 1948-1949
with the Little Orchestra Society of New York. In the Autumn of
1949, he joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as principal
clarinet, serving 47 years until the end of the 1995-1996
season. As well as being a long-time teacher at the Curtis
Institute, Gigliotti also taught at Temple University. In 1998,
Gigliotti began teaching at the Peabody Conservatory in
Baltimore. His son Mark Gigliotti joined the Philadelphia
Orchestra in the 1982-1983 season, and has been Co-Principal
bassoon of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1999-present. Anthony
Gigliotti died December 3, 2001 in Camden, New Jersey (he had
lived in nearby Cherry Hill, New Jersey).
Following Anthony Gigliotti, the Philadelphia Orchestra went
several years without finding a Principal clarinet with whom
they were satisfied. First to follow Gigliotti was Bert Hara.
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1996-1997 Burt Hara
Burt Hara was born in Alameda (east San Francisco Bay),
California on February 7, 1963. Hara studied at the Curtis
Institute in Philadelphia with Donald Montanaro, Yehuda Gilad and
Mitchell Lurie, graduating in 1984. After graduation, Burt
Hara was Principal clarinet of the Alabama Symphony Orchestra
in the mid-1980s. Then, Hara joined the Minnesota Orchestra
in the 1987-1988 season. Hara was appointed Principal Clarinet
of the Philadelphia Orchestra by Wolfgang Sawallisch during the
1996-1997 season. The next season, Burt Hara returned to the
Minnesota Orchestra in 1997-1998, where he continues to be Principal
clarinet of the Orchestra. Burt Hara has been an active teacher
throughout his career, including at the University of Alabama, and the
University of Minnesota.
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2003-present Ricardo Morales
Ricardo Morales was born in San Juan, Puerto Rico in 1972. In
San Juan, Ricardo Morales, along with his five brothers and sistes at
at the Escuela Libre de Musica. All five are now professional
musicians; his brother Jaime, for example is a conductor, including of the
Venezuela Symphony. Ricardo Moreles then studied at the Cincinnati
Conservatory of Music and later at Indiana University, Ricardo Morales
orchestral career began as Principal clarinet of the Florida
Principal clarinet of the Metropolitan
from 1993-2003. Wolfgang Sawallisch selected Morales to be
Philadelphia Orchestra Principal clarinet in 2002. This was
Sawallisch's last appointment of a new musician for Philadelphia
126. Ricardo Morales divides his teaching time between
Curtis, and the Boyer College of Music at Temple University in
Philadelphia, as well as the Juilliard School (Morales spends much
of his free time in New York City). Ricardo Morales has continued the
Philadelphia Orchestra tradition of couples playing in the orchestra by
marrying orchestra violinist
. As well as his artistry,
Ricardo Morales continues to gather fans for the orchestra and its music
through his contagious enthusiasm for his profession, his artistry, and
and also his leadership.
In October, 2010, the New York Philharmonic offered Morales the position
of Principal clarinet, a position which had been open since the end of the
2008-2009 season following the retirement of Stanley Drucker.
In April, 2011, the Philharmonic announced that Ricardo Morales would take up
the New York Principal clarinet position in September 2012. However, upon
reflection, in March 2012, Ricardo Morales let it be known that he had decided
against accepting the New York Philharmonic offer. Of couse, all Philadelphia
Orchestra fans are thrilled by this resolution, and the Philadelphia
Orchestra woodwind section continues its rich history of excellence.
Principal Flutes of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1
1900-1901 Charles Frederich Schoenthal
Charles Schoenthal was born in Solingen, about 25 km east of Düsseldorf,
Germany on May 18, 1863. Schoenthal emigrated as an infant with his family to
Philadelphia in 1865. Schoenthal was a professional musician in
Philadelphia in the 1880s and 1890s. Schoenthal joined the Philadelphia
Orchestra in the initial 1900-1901 season under Fritz Scheel as Principal
flute. Schoenthal remained in Philadelphia as a musician and later
returned to the Philadelphia Orchestra flute section for the
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1901-1902 Ary van Leeuwen
Ary van Leeuwen was born in Arnheim, the Netherlands in 1875. His uncle,
also Ary van Leeuwen was a Dutch orchestra conductor. Ary was a flute pupil
of legendary Joachim Andersen (1847-1909), and brother of Vigo Andersen, the first
Principal flute of the Chicago Symphony 1891-1895. Ary van Leeuwen studed with
Joachim Andersen while still in the Netherlands and then followed Andersen to Berlin
to continue his flute studies. While in Berlin Ary van Leeuwen was Principal
flute of the newly formed Berlin Philharmonic from
1897-1901. The next season, Ary van Leeuwen came to Philadelphia, staying for
one season, 1901-1902 under Fritz Scheel. Then, in 1903, van Leeuwen taught
at the Vienna Conservatory and was Principal flute of the Vienna 'Hof Oper' (now named
the Wiener Staatsoper, or Vienna State Opera) beginning in 1903, selected by Mahler.
Van Leeuwen continued in Vienna for 17 seasons until the end of 1919-1920, including
through World War 1. Following the war, Ary van Leeuwen returned to the US, and
was Principal flute of the Cincinnati Symphony for 14 seasons from 1924-1938.
Van Leeuwen moved to California in 1939 where he taught at the University of Southern
California for another decade. Ary van Leeuwen died in Los Angeles in 1953.
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1902-February 1907 (did not complete the 1906-1907 season)
August Hilmar Rodemann
August Rodemann was born in Adenstedt, near Hanover, Germany in January 1870.
He emigrated to the U.S. in April 1893 on the same ship with Chicago
Otto Wolf, and
However, August Rodemann does not seem to have played with the
Chicago orchestra. Rather, Rodemann moved to San Francisco, where he married
and lived at least until September, 1900. August Rodemann joined the Philadelphia
Orchestra flute section in the 1902-1903 season. The next year, August Rodemann
was advanced to the Principal flute chair, and also became librarian of the Orchestra
under Fritz Scheel. Rodemann remained with the Philadelphia Orchestra from 1902
until nearly the end of the 1907 season. During this time, Rodemann was also
assistant conductor to Fritz Scheel, which activity seems to have lead to his dismissal
from the Orchestra. The story of his dismissal was reported by the New York
Times on February 23, 1907 as follows:
'...PHILADELPHIA, Feb. 23. August R. Rodemann, first flutist of the
Philadelphia Orchestra, was summarily discharged from that body by the
Executive Committee of the orchestra association today. He was held
responsible for the trouble yesterday afternoon which caused Mme. Schumann-Heink
to quit the stage in tears after her solo number from "Gotterdammerung...'
Even reading today accounts of this incident, it is not clear what were the
sources of this contretemps. It is said that Rodemann had personal differences
with Ernestine Schumann-Heink (1861-1936). Schumann-Heink was usually not the
temperamental prima donna that we often associate with the great divas. It would
seem that Rodemann was making comments during her performance. As to conducting,
while in Philadelphia, August Rodemann also conducted the Tankopanicum Orchestra
(the Indian name for the nearby Brandywine River), a predecessor of the Delaware
Symphony, which Alfred I. du Pont was seeking to establish, and bankrolled each
year. After Philadelphia, Rodemann was for a time Principal flute of the
Cincinnati Symphony. Then, August Rodemann went to the New York Symphony,
likely as second chair flute, sitting next to Principal Georges Barrère.
Rodemann served with the New York Symphony under Walter Damrosch for seven seasons,
1919-1926. August Rodemann taught at Syracuse University in up-state New York
in the 1920s. By 1930, August Rodemann's career had declined, and he was
living in the Bronx, New York and listed his occupation in the 1930 Census as
'band musician'. However, which band is not indicated, and this may have
been one of the many hotel or theatre music groups of the period. It seems
that August Rodemann died in New York City sometime before 1940.
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1907-1910 Clemente Barone
Clemente Barone in 1923
Clemente Barone was born on March 8, 1877 in Marsico Nuovo 100 km east of Naples
in the Basilicata region of Italy.  He emigrated with his family to
Philadelphia in 1888. His was a musical family. His father, Pasquale
and Pasquale's father were both harpists. His brother Albert Barone
was a violinist. William was a pianist. Brother Richard Barone
was a violinist, including with the Philadelphia Orchestra.
Clemente Barone's wife, Marian Setaro also was of a musical
family. Her father played with the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, and her brother
Andrew was a timpanist 20. Brother Richard Barone
played violin with the Philadelphia Orchestra
for one season, 1923-1924. Clemente Barone played third
flute in the Philadelphia Orchestra inaugural season 1900-1901,
and then returned in the 1904-1905 season, remaining this time six
seasons until the end of 1909-1910. In March, 1907,
was dismissed (as described above), Clemente Barone was promoted
to the Principal flute chair, where he continued until 1910.
Again, the various official Philadelphia
Orchestra sources, including Ardoin 1 state that
became Principal in the 1910-1911 season, but Emily Butterfield
20 in her fascinating account provides evidence that Clemente played
for at least the beginning of Stokowski's first 1912-1913 season.
Perhaps Barone was one of the musicians dismissed by Stokowski during his
first season. Beginning in 1911, Barone played flute for the
Victor Talking Machine Company orchestra in Camden, and with their
house trio, the Victor Neapolitan Trio, Clement Barone, Sr., flute,
Howard Rattay, violin, and Francis Lapitino, harp, all of the
According to John R. Bolig's superb Victor Label Discographies
22, Barone recorded for Victor at least until 1929
(Victor Red Seal 9394, aria from Lakmé).  In 1932 and 1933 until he
became ill with cancer in 1934, Clemente Barone trained his 11 year old son,
Clement Barone Jr. in the flute, and Clement Barone Jr. went on to
a career with the Houston Symphony, the Detroit Symphony, and teaching at the
University of Michigan. Clemente Barone Sr. unfortunately died relatively
young, of cancer, in Philadelphia in 1934.
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1910-1918 Daniel Maquarre
Daniel Maquarre in 1920
Daniel Maquarre was born in Brussels, Belgium on February 16, 1881,
into a musical family. He was son of Clément Maquarre,
also a concert flutist, and younger brother of
, Principal flute of the Boston Symphony 1898-1918 also, as described
below, Principal flute of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1918-1921.
(A third and middle brother, Jean Louis - or John - Maquarre, born in
Belgium August 25, 1878 was also a musician in New York City. There
seems also to have been a fourth brother, Guillaume, or William who
was a musician in Paris.) Daniel Maquarre was admitted to
the Paris Conservatoire for flute, where he won a first Accessit
or runner-up flute prize in the 1894 Concour 28.
Daniel Maquarre later received his Premier prix in about the 1899
Concour. Daniel Maquarre was then Principal flute
for both the Lamoureux Orchestra and the Colonne Orchestra in Paris
1900-1902. Daniel Maquarre emigrated to Boston in 1903 to
join the Boston Symphony under Wilhelm Gericke, where his brother
André Maquarre was already BSO Principal flute.
Daniel Maquarre played flute with the Boston Symphony Orchestra
from 1903-1909. He is said to have departed from the Boston
Symphony due to a scandal. According to newspaper accounts,
Daniel Maquarre was arrested in San Francisco in 1909 "...
upon telegraphic advices from Boston Police where he was wanted
upon an Indictment charging him with a serious offense for eloping
with Mrs. Matilda Lenom..." 176. Matilda Lenom
was the wife of Clément Lenom, fellow Belgian and second oboe of the
Boston Symphony 1901-1925. Daniel Maquarre said "...What
was I to do? She came to me and pleaded. What else could I do?..."
180. (No doubt a juicy story and scandal
at the time. Clément Lenom remarried that same year).
Daniel Maquarre joined the Philadelphia Orchestra the next year
and remained as Principal flute from 1910-1918. Then, Maquarre
joined the Symphony Society of New York under Walter Damrosch as
Principal flute in the 1918-1919 season. Maquarre moved to the
National Symphony of New York under Artur Bodanzky beginning in the
1920-1921 season, after which the National Symphony merged with the
New York Philharmonic, after which Maquarre seems to have stayed in
the flute section through the end of the 1923-1924 season.
In the later 1920s, Daniel Maquarre
was an independent musician in New York City, including for growing
live radio broadcasts. Radio performances included of the
Classical Trio: Stefano de Stefano harp, Luclen Klrsch cello
and Daniel Maquarre flute 179. Daniel Maquarre
then returned to Europe, and seems to have settled in France in
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1918-1921 André Maquarre
André Maquarre in Boston 1913
André Maquarre, older brother of
was born in Brussels, Belgium on January 13, 1875. (A third and
middle brother, Jean Louis - or John - Maquarre, born in Belgium
August 25, 1878 was also a musician in New York City. There
seems also to have been a fourth brother, Guillaume, or William who
lived in Paris.) After studying with his flutist father,
Clement Maquarre, André Maquarre entered the Paris Conservatoire at
the same time (about 1890) as the famous flutist Georges Barrère
(1876-1944). André won the Premiere prix for flute at the
Conservatoire in 1893. André was Principal flute of the Boston
Symphony Orchestra for twenty seasons, from 1898-1918 11.
In 1918, he followed his brother Daniel to Philadelphia and was his successor
as Principal flute of the Philadelphia Orchestra for three seasons.
The various Philadelphia Orchestra references indicate André Maquarre as
remaining through the end of the 1920-1921 season, but Robert F. Cole
21 states that Stokowski dismissed Maquarre in April, 1921
during a rehearsal, and soon recruited
from the New York Chamber Music Society for the Principal flute position.
André Maquarre then went to Los Angeles where he was Principal flute from
1922-1929. André Maquarre returned to Europe in about 1930, and
in Paris, became a member of La Société des auteurs, compositeurs et éditeurs
de musique, a government-organized company responsible for the management of
authors and composers rights and copyrights. André Maquarre died in Paris in
1936, age 61.
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1921-1960 William Kincaid
William Kincaid was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota on April 26, 1895.
In 1911, Kincaid went to New York, enrolling simultaneously in Columbia
University and the Institute of Musical Art (later renamed Juilliard), where
he studied flute with the legendary George Barrère. After graduating
from the Institute of Musical Art in 1913 with his Artist's Diploma,
William Kincaid was in the flute section of the New York Symphony 1914-1919,
playing with his teacher Georges Barrère, who was Principal flute.
During World War 1, Kincaid was briefly in the US Navy, after which, he
returned to the New York Symphony. In 1920, Kincaid played solo
flute in the New York Chamber Music Society. After Leopold Stokowski
dismissed André Maquarre during a rehearsal in April, 1921, William Kincaid
was offered the first chair position in the Philadelphia Orchestra.
William Kincaid was Principal flute for a remarkable 40 seasons. He
retired from the Philadelphia Orchestra at the end of the 1959-1960 season
at the mandatory retirement age of 65. In 1928, Kincaid joined the
faculty of the Curtis Institute of Music. His teaching made a profound
impact of orchestral flute playing in the United States. Demetra Baferos
Fairsays in a fascinating Ph.D. thesis 111 writes of William Kincaid
and his teacher Georges Barrère: '...we may identify...Georges Barrère, as a
primary influence upon American flute playing. Barrère and his students -
and his students’ students - have taught approximately 91% of all living
flutists in the United States today. Of that vast number,
approximately 87% can trace their heritage (through one or more of their
teachers) to Barrère student William Kincaid...' 112. Among
Kincaid's many flute students who went on to importance were: Burnett
Atkinson, Julius Baker, Harold Bennett, Jacob L. Berg, Robert Cole,
George Drexler, Doriot Anthony Dwyer, Lloyd Gowen, Byron Hester, Britton
Johnson, John Krell, Warren Little, Joseph A. Mariano, Fernando Morrone,
Emil Opava, Donald Peck, James Pellerite, Elaine Shaffer, Maurice Sharp,
Kenton Terry, Albert N. Tipton, and Carl Woempner. William
Kincaid died on March 27, 1967.
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1960-1961 James John Pellerite
James Pellerite with Eugene Ormandy in 1961
James Pellerite was born on September 30, 1926 He studied flute
under his predecessor, William Kincaid at the Curtis Institute.
Pellerite also studied at Juilliard, where he graduated in 1948.
James Pellerite was Principal flute of the Indianapolis Symphony under Fabien
Sevitzky (nephew of Serge Koussevitzky) 1949-1951. Pellerite then moved
to the Detroit Symphony for four seasons, 1952-1956. He also was solo
flute with the L'Orquestra Sinfonica de Puerto Rico. Pellerite
became Principal flute of the Philadelphia Orchestra under Eugene
Ormandy in the 1960-1961 season, succeeding his teacher, William
Kincaid. Later, Pellerite was Professor of Flute at Indiana
University 1962-1987. In 1973, Pellerite toured in Australia, and for
3 months, he was Artist in Residence at the Sydney Conservatorium.
Pellerite retired to Colorado Springs, Colorado in 1993, where he has
become an advocate of the 'Native American Flute', which has five holes,
rather than the sixteen of the classical Boehm flute 109.
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1961-1989 Murray Wolfe Panitz
Murray Panitz was born in New York on August 30, 1925 of Russian Jewish
parents. In the late 1930s, Panitz studied at the New York High
School for Music and Arts 110. He then studied flute at the
Eastman School of Music. He gained a master's degree in music from
the Manhattan School of Music. He played flute with the National
Symphony of Washington. In the 1940s, Panitz played flute with the
Goldman Band. He also played in the 1950s with the Symphony of the
Air. Murray Panitz was Principal flute of the New York City
Ballet 1960-1961 before coming to Philadelphia. Joining the
Philadelphia Orchestra as Principal flute in the 1961-1962 season under
Ormandy, he remained in the first chair for 28 seasons, following on
William Kincaid. Murray Panitz also played and recorded with the
Philadelphia Woodwind Quintet (Mason Jones, horn, Anthony Gigliotti,
clarinet, John De Lancie, oboe and Sol Schoenbach bassoon).
The baauty of his tone can be heard in his many recordings, such as
in Ravel's Daphnis and Chloe Suite No 2. Murray Panitz died
suddenly in New York on April 13, 1989, before the end of the Philadelphia
Orchestra 1988-1989 season, age only 63.
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1990-present Jeffrey Khaner
Jeffrey Khaner was born on December 22, 1958 in Montréal, Canada.
Early in his career, Khaner was Principal flute of the Atlantic Symphony
in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Khaner studied flute with Jeanne Baxtresser
at the Juilliard School, where he graduated in 1980. Following
graduation, in the 1981-1982 season, Khaner was co-Principal flute
(with Bernard Goldberg ) of the Pittsburgh Symphony under André Previn.
Jeffrey Khaner was then appointed Principal flute of the Cleveland
Orchestra in the 1982-1983 season at the end of Lorin Maazel's
tenure. Khaner remained in Cleveland for 8 season, and also
taught flute at the Cleveland Institute of Music. At the end of the
1989-1990 season, Jeffrey Khaner left the Cleveland Orchestra to become
Principal flute of the Philadelphia Orchestra under Riccardo Muti.
He carries on the rich tradition of Philadelphia Orchestra flutists, and
reviews, such as the New York Times speak of "...his consistently agile
and thoughtful playing, and in particular by his sense of character..."
Since joining the Philadelphia Orchestra, Jeffrey Khaner has taught
flute at the Curtis School of Music, and starting in 2004, Khaner was also
appointed to the faculty of his alma mater, the Juilliard School.
After two decades as Principal flute with the Philadelphia Orchestra,
Jeffery Khaner continues to show a distinctive beauty of tone and depth
of interpretation which led him to the Principal position of several of
the greatest orchestras of the US, including the great
Principal Horns of the Philadelphia Orchestra
1900-1901 Josef Reiter
Josef (later Joseph) Reiter was born in July, 1848 in Germany. In
Germany, he played horn under the famed Franz Strauss (1822-1905)
who was also father to Richard Strauss. In a biography of
Franz Strauss, Josef Reiter is mentioned as taking part in
the premier of Wagner's Parsifal: '... Franz Strauss took part of the
Parsifal premiere in Bayreuth 1882, having Josef Reiter as his
assistant...' 120. In 1889, Josef Reiter emigrated to the U.S.
In 1891, he married, his wife Mary being 23 years younger.
In December, 1892 he played horn in a chamber music ensemble
in New York City, and with the Arion Society Orchestra under Frank
van der Stucken. Reiter was a horn soloist with the
Baltimore Symphony in January, 1893. At that same Baltimore concert,
the eccentric horn player
Xavier Reiter, Principal horn of the Boston Symphony Orchestra
was also a horn soloist. Perhaps they were
brothers or otherwise related, although records so far do not answer
this question. In September and October, 1895, Joseph Reiter was
a horn soloist at a concerts in San Francisco and at the
University of California, Berkeley. Joseph Reiter
was appointed Principal horn for the first season of the Philadelphia
Orchestra, 1900-1901 by Fritz Scheel. It may be that Scheel met Reiter
during his organization of concerts in San Francisco in 1895, 1896 and 1897.
In the 1902-1903 season, Reiter was Principal horn under Anton Seidel
in the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, where he stayed for 23 seasons until
the end of the 1924-1925 season. As to playing, in a contemporary
newspaper review, the New York Times critic wrote: "...Mischa Elman
played the Scotch Fantasy, but when Reiter had the melody for only a few bars,
he overshadowed Elman. But Reiter can sing on his horn. ..."
Joseph Reiter died in New York in about 1930.
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1901-1902 Robert Minsel
Robert Minsel was born in 1876 in Germany. Minsel studied horn at the
Leipzig Conservatory. He later became Principal horn of the Leipzig
Gewandhaus Orchestra. Robert Minsel was Principal horn with the
Philadelphia Orchestra under Fritz Scheel for its second season,
1901-1902. After Anton Horner took the first chair of the Philadelphia
horn section in the 1902-1903 season, Minsel remained with the Philadelphia
Orchestra for two more seasons until the end of 1903-1904. Minsel also
played in the Boston Festival Orchestra, a summer orchestra organized by
George W. Stewart, with
Emil Mollenhauer made up primarily of Boston
Symphony Musicians, and orchestra musicians from New York and Philadelphia
which played the summer festivals in the 1890s and 1900s. Robert
Minsel also played in the May Festival of the University of
Michigan. There, he had been a colleague in the horn section of Anton
Horner and his brother Joseph Horner. In 1908-1920 Minsel was Principal
horn with the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra. Minsel remained with
Minneapolis conductor Emil Oberhoffer (1867-1933) for twelve seasons.
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1902-1931 (co-principal 1929-1931) Anton Horner
Anton Horner about 1920
Anton Horner was born in Gossengrün, Bohemia (then part of
Austria-Hungary, now in the Czech Republic, 100 km west of Prague),
on June 21, 1877. Anton, his brother Joseph, father Frank and mother
emigrated to the U.S. in 1885. The family members became citizens
in 1890. His father, Frank Horner, a merchant, had visited the U.S.
in the 1870s. Unfortunately, Frank Horner died soon after being
naturalized in 1890 161. Both Anton Horner and younger brother
Joseph Horner (1882- ) studied horn in the 1880s with their father, but
following Frank's death, the family returned to Austria for family support.
During the 1890s, both Anton and Joseph continued study of the horn.
Joseph studied with their great uncle161, and then in Vienna.
Anton went to Germany to the Leipzig Conservatory to study with perhaps the
greatest German horn teacher of the 19th century, Friedrich Gumpert
(1841-1906) during four years 1890-1894 24. Gumpert
taught horn at the Leipzig Conservatory while serving as Principal horn
with the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra 1864-1898. Gumpert, with
others including Anton Horner, had worked on developing the so-called
"double horn" which was a horn combining the previous F horn
and B-flat horn into one instrument, both better sounding and often
easier to gain the best results 121. Anton Horner was an early
advocate of the double horn, and his role as one of the key teachers
of the horn in the US was also instrumental in the wide adoption
of the instrument. In 1898, both Anton and Joseph Horner returned
to Philadelphia. Joseph Horner became what we would call today
"utility horn" in the Henry Gordon Thunder Orchestra in
Philadelphia in 1899-1900. Anton Horner was appointed
Principal horn of the Pittsburgh Symphony by Victor Herbert 1898-1902.
In 1902, Fritz Scheel selected Anton Horner as Principal horn of
the Philadelphia Orchestra, where he served an amazing fourty seasons.
Anton Horner moved from the first horn chair at the peak of his career,
making room for the next generation, including a succession of his
Curtis Institute students. Anton Horner was Co-Principal horn
with Domenico Caputo during the 1929-1930 and 1930-1931 seasons.
Beginning in the 1938-1939, Anton Horner moved to the Third Chair
of the horn section, where re remained until his retirement at
the end of the 1941-1942 season 103. Anton Horner
taught at the Curtis Institute from 1924-1942. His students
, all of whom went on to become Principal horns with the Philadelphia
Orchestra. Anton Horner's impact on the teaching of his instrument
and on US orchestra playing matched that of Marcel Tabuteau for the oboe,
William Kincaid for the flute, and Daniel Bonade for the clarinet.
Stories about Anton Horner portray him as being a crusty and acerbic
teacher and colleague, but also with "a heart of gold", and
basically warm person. Anton Horner died in Philadelphia in
December 1971, age 94, famed and respected.
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1929-1931 (co-principal) Domenico Caputo
Domenico Caputo with wife Margherita in 1923
Domenico Caputo was born at Santa Maria Capua Vetere, in Campania about
30 km north of Naples, Italy on January 22, 1893. He came to New
York City in 1911 to join the Metropolitan Opera horn section.
Caputo remained with the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra horn section from
1911-after 1924. In the summer of 1915, Caputo played in the orchestra
of the Teatro Nationale in Cuba. Also during the 1910s, Domenico Caputo
was Principal horn of the New Symphony Orchestra of New York under Arthur
Bodansky 102. In the 1920s, Domenico Caputo was Principal
horn of the National Symphony Orchestra of New York under Willem Mengelberg
105. Following the merger of the National Symphony Orchestra into the
New York Philharmonic, Domenico Caputo was co-Principal horn of the Philadelphia
Orchestra with Anton Horner during the 1929-1930 and 1930-1931 seasons
at the Philadelphia Orchestra 103. Domenico Caputo died in
Imperia, Italy September, 15, 1974 104.
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1931-1935, 1938-1942 (co-principal 1931-1935, 1938-1941)
Clarence Mayer was a member of the Philadelphia Orchestra horn section
from 1926-1965, and was Principal or Co-Principal from 1931 to 1935 and
1938 to 1941.
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1930-1938 Arthur Isadore Berv (co-Principal 1930-1935)
Arthur Berv was born in Poland December 29, 1906. He came with his brother
Jack to the US in about 1910. Arthur Berv's brothers, Jack Berv
(1908-1994) and Harry Berv (1911-2005) were also horn players.
Jack and Harry studied at the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia,
graduating in the class of 1935. In the 1924-1925 season, at age only
17, Arthur Berv joined the horn section of the Philadelphia Orchestra, perhaps
the youngest-ever Philadelphia Orchestra member. Arthur Berv stayed in Philadelphia
for three seasons. In the 1926-1927 season, age only 20, Arthur Berv
was appointed Principal horn of the New York Symphony under Walter Damrosch
134. Arthur Berv was then Principal horn of the Cleveland
Orchestra for two seasons 1928-1930. There was an interesting
incident involving Arthur Berv when he was with the Cleveland Orchestra.
Nikolai Sokoloff recalled the first rehearsal of a new work for
the electronic instrument invented by Theremin.
This was a symphony by Joseph Schillinger.  Sokoloff recalled the first
rehearsal: "...the instrument was wired to a series of outlets on the
state, Mr. Theremin sat in front of it and we started the rehearsal...
suddenly, the thing emitted the most unearthly, ear-splitting shriek, and
to my horror, I saw our wonderful first horn Isadore Berv keel over in a
dead faint. It took some time to revive the poor fellow and his
instrument was battered by his fall. Theremin was abject in his
apologies..." 133. Following Cleveland, Arthur Berv joined
the Philadelphia Orchestra under Leopold Stokowski in the 1930-1931 season.
Berv was first co-Principal horn with Anton Horner, and then shared the
first horn chair responsibilities with Clarence Mayer from 1931 to 1935.
Arthur Berv became Principal horn under Eugene Ormandy in the 1935-1936 season.
Berv remained with the Philadelphia Orchestra three more seasons,
until the end of the 1937-1938 season. In 1938, Arthur Berv joined
the NBC Symphony in the second season of Toscanini's direction. The
story usually told is that Toscanini was unhappy with the horn section
under Frank Stagliano (the first Principal horn selected by Arthur Rodzinski)
which he found at the NBC Symphony. From his guest conducting in New York
and Philadelphia, Toscanini had been impressed by Arthur, Jack and Harry
Berv. The brothers were offered NBC contracts at higher salaries and
for a 52 week season. As a result, in the second season, the NBC
Symphony horn section included Arthur Berv, Principal, Jack Berv,
second horn, Harry Berv, third horn, and Arturo Cerino, fourth horn.
During World War 2, Arthur Berv was horn with the U.S. Air Force Band.
In New York, Berv taught horn at the Manhattan School of Music.
Arthur Berv died on July 8, 1992 in Great Neck (on Long Island), New York.
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1942-1946 James Chambers
James Chambers was born in Trenton, New Jersey on December
15, 1920. He made his debut with the Trenton Symphony
Orchestra at age fifteen in 1936. Chambers was a student of
at the Curtis Institute from 1938-1941. Chambers was
second horn with Stokowski's All American Youth Orchestra on
its 1940-1941 tour. In 1941, upon graduation from the Curtis,
Fritz Reiner asked James Chambers to become Principal
horn with the Pittsburgh Symphony. At the beginning of
the 1942-1943 season, Chambers joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as
Principal horn, during the last season that Anton Horner played
with the Orchestra. In 1946 until 1969,
Chambers was Principal horn of the New York Philharmonic, and began
teaching at the Julliard. He continued at the Juilliard for 42 years
until his death. In 1969, he experienced health problems, and
ceased playing, but continued as Personnel Manager for the New York
Philharmonic until 1987. James Chambers died of a heart attack
on January 1, 1989 in Cranberry, New Jersey.
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1939-1941, 1945-1978 Mason Jones
(co-principal 1939-1941, 1945-1946)
Mason Jones was born June 16, 1919 in Hamilton, New York where his
father was a professor of Romance Languages at Colgate University.
Mason Jones entered the Curtis Institute of Music in 1935 at the age
of sixteen. At Curtis, Jones studied with Anton Horner, horn
and also with Marcel Tabuteau, who, though an oboe, was a gifted
teacher of performance. While still a student at Curtis, Mason
Jones was engaged for the Philadelphia Orchestra by Eugene Ormandy in
1938. Mason Jones graduated from Curtis in the Class of 1938.
Beginning in 1939, Jones was Principal horn in the two seasons 1939-1940
and 1940-1941, after which he entered the US Army. While in the
Army, Mason Jones was Principal horn of the U.S. Marine Band
in Washington, D.C. When Mason Jones returned from his
World War 2 service, he found himself
in a competition with
for the Principal horn position of the Philadelphia Orchestra.
Jones prevailed, and James Chambers instead went on to a
successful career with the New York Philharmonic.
In 1946, Mason Jones also returned to the Curtis Institute,
and in 1970, he was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Music
from Colgate University. Mason Jones has been the
personnel manager of the Philadelphia Orchestra since 1963.
He co-founded the Philadelphia Brass Ensemble (see photo
below). Mason Jones died on February 19, 2009 in Gladwyne,
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Robert McMillan Fries
1963-1965 (co-principal with Mason Jones, his teacher)
Robert Fires with his 'other instrument', the bagpipe with
daughter Laura Fries in 1971
Robert Fries was born on January 11, 1932 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, of a
prosperous family, son of Charles C. Fries (1887-1967), University of
Michigan professor and founder of the English Language Institute at the
University 115. Robert Fries studied horn at the
Curtis Institute in Philadelphia with Mason Jones, where he graduated
with a Bachelor of Music degree in 1957 116. Robert
Fries later played horn in the US Marine Band, and the New Orleans
Philharmonic and the Detroit Symphony. Then, for two
seasons, Robert Fries played horn with the Philadelphia Orchestra
as co-Principal with his teacher, Mason Jones. Robert Fries,
following the Philadelphia Orchestra went on to a successful teaching
career at the Oberlin Conservatory of Music. His wife, Susan Fries
also taught flute at the Oberlin Conservatory. Susan and Robert's
children, Robert, Laura, and David studied cello and violin 113.
Robert Fries also played horn during the summers at the Grand Teton
Music Festival in Wyoming. While teaching, Robert Fries was active in
the Oberlin Woodwind Quintet. As a hobby, Robert Fries developed his
skills playing the Scottish bagpipe, and organized a bagpipe band at Oberlin
114. He was also the teacher of Robert Ward,
later associate Principal horn of the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra,
and now at University of California, Berkeley.
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1978-2008 Nolan Miller Co-Principal 1965-1978,
Nolan Miller photo: Philadelphia Orchestra Association
Nolan Miller was born in Hamburg in rural eastern Pennsylvania in 1939
118. Nolan Miller early was recognized
as gifted child and was trained in piano and solfège. His piano abilities
were such that he considered a career as a concert pianist. In about
1957, Nolan Miller won a local piano competition and performed the Beethoven
Fourth Piano Concerto with the Reading Symphony in about 1960. Horn and
piano were his double major during his first year of at Lebanon Valley College,
a small liberal arts college a few miles from his home. At Lebanon Valley,
Nolan Miller he studied horn with
Gail Weimer, former Third horn of the
Chicago Symphony and James Thurmond 117.
Nolan Miller then entered the Curtis Institute, where he studied with
his famous predecessor and horn teacher, Mason Jones. Miller graduated from
Curtis in the Class of 1965 and joined the Philadelphia Orchestra horn section in
the 1965-1966 season. In the 1966-1967 season, following the departure of
Robert Fries, Nolan Miller was Associate Principal horn, sitting next to Principal
Mason Jones. Nolan Miller and Mason Jones, close friends as well as orchestra
colleagues played together for 14 seasons. Then, upon the retirement of Mason
Jones at the end of the 1977-1978 season, Nolan Miller became Principal horn of the
Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1978-1979 season. Nolan Miller was horn of the
Philadelphia Orchestra for 40 seasons, from 1965-1978, under Ormandy, Riccardo Muti,
Wolfgang Sawallisch and Christoph Eschenbach until he retired at the end of the 2004-2005
season. Nolan Miller was also active in summer festivals, including the
Jackson Hole, Wyoming summer festival.
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2008-present Jennifer Montone
Jennifer Montone was born in Virginia in 1974. While
living in the Washington D.C. area in her teenage years,
Jennifer Montone studied with Edwin Thayer, principal horn of the
National Symphony. Jennifer Montone was then admitted to
the Juilliard School, where she studied with
, principal horn of the Metropolitan Opera, gaining her BMus in
about 1997. Earlier in her career, Jennifer Montone was
third horn of the New Jersey Symphony. While in the
New Jersey - New York area, she performed regularly with the
Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, with the Orpheus Chamber Orchestra,
and the New York Philharmonic. She was a substitute musician for
several Broadway shows. Then in 2000, Jennifer Montone was selected
as the Associate Principal horn of the Dallas Symphony under Andrew Litton.
She was Principal horn in Dallas for three seasons, 2000-2003, at
which time she also taught at Southern Methodist University.
After Dallas, Jennifer Montone was appointed Principal horn
of the Saint Louis Symphony 2003-2008. Jennifer Montone
won the competition to become Principal horn of the Philadelphia Orchestra
in 2008, and entered the Orchestra in the 2008-2009 season, succeeding
Nolan Miller. In this role, she carries on the long and distinguished
Philadelphia horn tradition. Jennifer Montone has also been active
in chamber music, including festivals, playing in the Bay Chamber Concerts
- Maine, Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center, La Jolla Chamber Music
Festival - California, Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival - New Mexico,
Bellingham Music Festival - Washington, Spoleto Chamber Music Festival
- Italy and the Marlboro Music Festival - Vermont. Jennifer Montone
is said usually to play either a Rauch Model 1 or a Conn 8D model horn.
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Philadelphia Brass Ensemble in 1959: Mason Jones, horn, Abe Torchinsky,
Tuba, Gilbert Johnson, trumpet
Charles Henry Smith, Trombone, Seymour Rosenfeld, Assistant Principal Trumpet
Principal Trumpets of the Philadelphia Orchestra
1900-1901 Frederick E. Wagner
Frederick Wagner was the first Principal trumpet of the
Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1900-1901 season. He may
have been part of the prior Thunder Orchestra that was folded
into the Philadelphia Orchestra in it first season.
Frederick Wagner continued to live in Philadelphia at least
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1901-1902 August Bender
August Bender may have been born in Germany in 1852.
August Bender was in the trumpet section in the Philadelphia Orchestra
under Fritz Scheel for two seasons, 1901-1902 and 1902-1903.
Bender was Principal trumpet for the first of these two seasons and
Third trumpet under the leadership of Paul Handke in 1902-1903.
Because of the lack of any other
public record of August Bender in the US found so far, other than
his brief time with the Philadelphia Orchestra, it seems likely that
Bender came to Philadelphia during each of these two seasons, and then
returned to Europe each summer, as was the practice in that era.
He likely continued to pursue his career in Germany.
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1902-1903 Paul A. Handke
Paul Handke was born in Vienna, Austria November 23, 1867,
where he also studied. At age 24, Paul Handke was trumpet at the
Munich Hofoper for five seasons 1894-1899. At that time, he studied
with his orchestra colleague Albert Meichelt Sr. (1850-1914) 189,
who was also later his father-in-law. Handke was first trumpet in
the Vienna Hofoper Orchestra and in the related Vienna Philharmonic
in the 1899-1900 season 190 when Gustav Mahler
was Vienna's conductor. Paul Handke emigrated to the U.S. in 1901,
perhaps invited by Fritz Scheel to join the Philadelphia
Orchestra. At that time, Handke also
brought with him his hand transcriptions of the Haydn Trumpet Concerto
in E flat major composed in 1796. Handke joined the Philadelphia
Orchestra in the 1901-1902 season, and became Principal the following
season 1902-1903. At this time, Handke also played in the Spring
Bethlehem Bach Festival one hour outside Philadelphia.
He played in the Cincinnati May Festival in 1903. Paul
Handke then joined the Chicago Symphony Orchestra under Theodore
Thomas in the 1903-1904 season. Handke was Principal trumpet
in Chicago 1903-1907. Following the death of Theodore Thomas
and the accession of Frederick Stock, Stock decided to appoint
Otto Schubert as Chicago Principal trumpet in 1907-1908.
Paul Handke then moved to the second trumpet position where he
served for five additional seasons from 1907-1912. During the
period 1912-1916, Paul Handke was a musician in Chicago playing
among other groups as a substitute with the Chicago Opera Company
189. In the 1916-1917 season, Paul Handke rejoined
the Chicago Symphony as Librarian and trumpet. From 1926-1933,
Paul Handke was also second Cornet, the fifth chair position in the
Chicago Symphony trumpet section. He retired from the orchestra
at the end of the 1942-1943 season just before his 76th birthday.
During the Chicago Symphony years, Paul Handke also performed outside the
Chicago Symphony. Prior to World War 1, Handke
played summer season tours with the Ballmann Symphonic Band under
Martin Ballmann. By 1920
Handke was also a part-time theater musician in Chicago, and
played with various entertainment groups. Paul Handke's
service in Chicago, although not continuous, covered 36 seasons.
Paul Handke died in Chicago on February 14, 1944.
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1903-1904 Max Bleyer
Max Bleyer in 1909
Max Bleyer was first trumpet of the Philadelphia Orchestra for
one season, 1903-1904. By 1908, Max Bleyer was teaching at Juilliard
(then known as the Institute of Musical Studies).
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1904-1905, 1914-1915 Herman Basse
Herman Basse was born in Goslar, near Hannover, Germany in
February 18, 1866 and emigrated to the U.S. in 1893 with his
wife Johannah and baby daughter to New York City, becoming a
citizen in 1902. From 1899-1904, Basse was Principal
trumpet with the New York Philharmonic. During the
1904-1905 season, Basse was Principal Trumpet of the Philadelphia
Orchestra under Fritz Scheel. With the next season, 1905-1906
and until the end of the 1911-1912 season, he was again solo trumpet
with the Metropolitan Opera orchestra. In the 1914-1915 season,
Basse again joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as his Principal trumpet
under Leopold Stokowski. After that season, Basse then remained
with the Orchestra 1915-1917, bur relinquished the first chair
trumpet position of the Philadelphia Orchestra to
. In 1917, Basse left the Philadelphia Orchestra, and went to the
Detroit Symphony trumpet section. Basse later retired to Florida
where he lived at least until 1937.
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1905-1907 Gustav Friedrick Heim
Gustav Heim was born in Schleusingen, Thüringen, Germany, 150 km East of
Frankfurt on May 8, 1879. Heim studied trumpet first under his
father, and then at the local music school in Schleusingen from
1893-1897. In 1897, Heim was cornet solo of the military band based
in Thüringen. Heim emigrated to the U.S. in 1904 to St. Louis.
During his career, Heim was first trumpet for an amazing number of
leading U.S. orchestras. Heim started in 1904 with the orchestra of
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition (also known as the 1904 St. Louis
World Fair). In St. Louis, Fritz Scheel, conductor of the
Philadelphia Orchestra heard Gustav Heim play. As a result, in the
1905-1906 season, Heim became Principal trumpet of the Philadelphia
Orchestra, while his predecessor, Herman Basse returned to the
Metropolitan Opera. Gustav Heim stayed in Philadelphia for one
Gustav Heim continued his itinerant care by moving on to the Boston
Symphony Orchestra in the 1906-1907 season as third trumpet.
Heim remained third trumpet until, in the 1914-1915 season, under
Karl Muck, Heim became Principal Trumpet. He remained in the
first trumpet chair of the Boston Symphony until 1920. In the 1920
disastrous Boston Symphony musician’s strike, Heim was, along with
the Concertmaster Frederic Fradkin, one of the two Orchestra Principals
who left the Boston Symphony as a result of the strike. Heim
departed for the Detroit Symphony, where he was Principal trumpet 1920-1921.
then took over Heim’s first chair trumpet position with
the Boston Symphony. After moving to Detroit for
one season, Gustav Heim then moved to New York, where he was Principal
trumpet with the Philharmonic Society for two seasons 1921-1923
under Josef Stransky. Continuing his movements
from orchestra to orchestra, in the
1923-1924 season, Heim moved to the Cleveland Orchestra under Nikolai
Sokoloff (1886-1965). Then, Gustav Heim moved back to New York to
join the New York Symphony from 1925-1928 under Walter Damrosch (who
had also conducted Heim at the 1904 St. Louis Fair). After the
merger of the New York Symphony with the New York Philharmonic
Society in 1928, Harry Glantz was selected to continue as Principal
trumpet of the merged orchestra. Glanz had previously studied
with Heim. Gustav Heim then joined the American Symphonic Ensemble in
New York which was an orchestra without a conductor for the 1929-1930
season. He was also a regular at the long-lived Worcester Music
Festival (Massachusetts) in the summers from 1910-1914, 1916, and
1925 to 1932. Gustav Heim also taught in New York City, and among
his famous students were William Vacchiano.
During most of his career, Gustav Heim played a was a Bb trumpet.
Gustav Heim died relatively young on October 30, 1933 in
New York City after a sudden illness, aged only 54.
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1907-1909 Christian Hubert Rodenkirchen
Christian Rodenkirchen was born in Hennef, 30 km south of
Cologne, Germany on February 19, 1858. Rodenkirchen played
cornet in a regimental band in Cologne in 1883 27.
Shortly thereafter, Christian Rodenkirchen emigrated to the US, and
seems to have settled first in the Chicago area. During his
constantly changing career Rodenkirchen was first trumpet of a number of
leading American Orchestras from 1891 to 1915. In 1890, he
was a member of a mid-west touring orchestra, the Aamold Concert
Company, conducted by August Aamold (1863-after 1930). Rodenkirchen
joined the trumpet section at the founding of the Chicago Symphony
in the 1891-1892 season as first cornet. Rodenkirchen was first
cornet and then Principal trumpet of the Chicago Symphony for eleven
seasons, 1891-1902. He then seems to have had a falling-out with
Theodore Thomas, and Rodenkirchen's contract for the next season was not
renewed. Rodenkirchen then became Principal trumpet of the New
York Symphony during the 1903-1904 season under Walter Damrosch.
The next season, Rodenkirchen became Principal Trumpet of the
Metropolitan Opera for the 1904-1905 season. Continuing his
peripatetic career journey, Christian Rodenkirchen then joined the
New York Philharmonic as first trumpet from 1905-1907.
In New York in 1907, Rodenkirchen married his second wife, Mary
McNally, 20 years younger.
Christian Rodenkirchen with wife Mary McNally in about 1910
He moved to the Philadelphia Orchestra
for two seasons as Principal trumpet under Karl Pohlig 1907-1909.
Rodenkirchen then returned to the New York Philharmonic (it would seem
as first trumpet) from 1909-1911 during the years of Gustav Mahler as
Music Director 27. Rodenkirchen then returned to the
Philadelphia Orchestra as second trumpet from 1911 until his early
death on February 6, 1915, just days before his 57th birthday.
Because of his early death, Christian Rodenkirchen did not finish the
Philadelphia Orchestra 1914-1915 season, ending his restless career.
Christian Rodenkirchen, through his many students was, like Max Schlossberg
(1873-1936), an early creator of what became to be considered an American
school of trumpet playing 26.
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1909-1914 Henri C. Le Barbier
Henri Le Barbier was born in 1873 in the Alsace-Lorraine area, then part of Germany
and returned to France following World War 1. Le Barbier was Principal
trumpet of the Concertgebouw Orchestra 1904-1909. Le Barbier then moved
to the U.S. to join the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1909-1910 season
upon the departure of Christian Rodenkirchen for the New York
Philharmonic. Le Barbier remained Principal trumpet in
Philadelphia until 1914. He then became Principal trumpet of the
Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra 1920-1921, and 1923-1936.
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1915-1917 Hersch (Harry) Glantz
Harry Glantz (left) with New York trumpet colleagues Nat Prager,
William Vacchiano, Sol Lubin in 1939 at Lewison Stadium in
New York City
Harry Glantz was born in what was then Proskuriv, in the Ukraine in Russia
(now named Khmelnytskyi, in the Ukraine) on January 1, 1896. He emigrated
to the US with his family at age 4 in 1900. His family followed his father,
Pincus Glantz (1866-1939), who had traveled to New York City nine months earlier.
Pincus Glantz was a violinist, but unfortunately had to earn his living
mostly as a cloth cutter, although he also played in theater orchestras.
Harry Glantz studied trumpet with Jacob Borodkin beginning at age 9.
He also studied with Max Bleyer, Christian Rodenkirchen, and Gustav Heim,
all of whom were at various times Philadelphia Orchestra Principal trumpets.
Harry Glantz was also a student of the famous trumpet teacher Max Schlossberg
(1873-1936), who after emigrating from Russia became a long-term trumpet teacher
at the New York Institute of Musical Art (predecessor of the Julliard School) and
New York Philharmonic trumpet. Max Schlossberg is often called the '...father
of the American School of trumpet playing...' 129. From
1911-1915, Harry Glantz was Principal trumpet of the New York Russian Symphony
Orchestra Society, which was a training ground for many leading U.S. orchestral
players. During much of 1915, Harry was in San Francisco, California as
Principal trumpet at the San Francisco Exposition Orchestra. Beginning with
the 1915-1916 season and also for half of the next season, Harry Glantz was
Principal trumpet of the Philadelphia Orchestra. In December, 1917, Glantz
was drafted into the U.S. Marine Band, and discharged in 1919 at the end of
World War 1. From 1919-1922, Harry Glantz was Principal trumpet of the
New York Symphony. Then, in 1922, Glantz moved back to San Francisco
where he was Principal of the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra during the
1922-1923 season. Harry Glantz said that San Francisco conductor Alfred
Hertz urged him to remain with the Orchestra, since only with brass
of this quality could Hertz perform Wagner as it should be done.
Glantz instead moved back to New York to be with his parents 128.
Harry Glantz went to the New York Philharmonic as Principal
trumpet for 19 seasons, 1923-1942. In 1942, Harry Glantz then
went on to become the Arturo Toscanini's Principal trumpet at the
NBC Symphony, where he stayed until the Symphony disbanded in 1955.
in 1958, he retired to Bay Harbor, Florida. Beginning
in 1972 until his death, Glantz taught trumpet at the
University of Miami Graduate School of Music. Harry
Glantz died in Bay Harbor, Florida December 18, 1982 at age 82 after
a rich and varied career at the top of his profession.
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1917-1923 Ernest Samuel Williams
Ernest (in his band uniform) and wife Catherine Williams about 1911
Ernest Williams, known by his students as "the Chief", was born
September 27, 1881 in Richmond, Wayne County, Indiana. After early
study with his father, Williams studied in Boston in 1899
with musicians Henry C. Brown and Gustave Strube.
Strube was Boston Symphony violin and conductor of the Boston Pops
and taught several different instruments.
Ernest Williams also studied with legendary cornetist
Herbert L. Clarke, long with the Sousa Band, one time
Metropolitan Opera trumpet (1899-1900 season), and a life-long friend
of Ernest Williams. In 1899, at age 18, during
the Spanish-American War, Williams joined the Indiana Regiment
Band. From 1900-1902. Williams played with numerous
bands (including Innes’ Band, Liberati’s Band, and the Sousa’s
Band). In late 1901 and early 1902, Williams toured
with the Sousa Band in England. For the next ten years,
Williams played in a series of U.S. bands: 1903-1906, the
Martland Band of Boston, and 1907-1910, he conducted the
Boston Cadet Band. In later years often referred to himself as
a "bandmaster". In 1911, he married a cornet soloist,
Catherine Rankin, and together they made an international tour
1913-1914. 1915-1916, he was solo cornet with the Franko
Band In 1916, he played in the Diaghilev Ballet Russe American
tour under Pierre Monteux. Although Williams was never
particularly attracted to orchestral playing, in the
following year, he joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as solo
trumpet, where he remained until 1923. During his
Philadelphia years, Williams continued to play with the Goldman
Band in New York City. Williams taught at Ithaca College
in 1929-1930 and 1937-1946 at the New York Institute
of Musical Art (Juilliard). Williams retained his primary
residence in Brooklyn, NY from about 1900 until the late
1930s. In 1931, he created what he named the "Ernest
Williams School of Music" in Brooklyn, which he continued
until 1943, when WW2 took most of his students. The
school also had a very effective summer camp, the Ernest
Williams Music Camp on property Williams owned in the
New York Catskills at Saugerties, NY in which
instructors of all brass families would tutor the students.
For example, Seymour Rosenfeld, long-time trumpet with the
Philadelphia Orchestra was a the Ernest Williams Summer Camp in
1936, 1937, and 1938. Williams beginning in 1936 taught at the
State University of New York until 1943. He died in Saugerties,
NY on February 10, 1947. Over the years, Ernest Williams
had many trumpet students, and was considered a demanding and gifted
instructor. Williams also published a series of trumpet
method books still widely used in trumpet instruction.
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1923-1945 Saul (or Sol) Caston
(Solomon Gusikoff Cohen)
Saul Caston with behind him Eugene Ormandy (partially blocked), and Arturo Toscanini in 1940
Saul Caston was born Solomon Gusikoff Cohen on August 22, 1901 in New York
City, his mother coming from the musical Gusikoff-Borodkin family.
By 1912 at age 11, Saul was a student of the famous trumpet teacher
Max Schlossberg (1873-1936) of the Russian (or Russian Jewish) school
of trumpet playing, who at that time played in the New York Philharmonic,
and who later taught at the New York Institute of Musical Art (Juilliard).
Max Schlossberg had relocated to the U.S. in about 1902, and is considered by
many to be the founder of the American style of orchestral trumpet playing
26. Saul Caston also studied conducting with Abram
Chasins27. As mentioned above,
was also a Schlossberg student, as was Seymour Rosenfeld, second
trumpet of the Philadelphia Orchestra from 1946-1988. Saul
joined the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1918, and then became
Principal in the 1923-1924 season, in which position he
continued until 1945. He became Associate Conductor of the
Philadelphia Orchestra in 1936, and from 1941 until 1944 Caston
became conductor of the Reading Symphony Orchestra, a small
orchestra of suburban Philadelphia. This conducting experience
lead to his appointment as conductor of the Denver Symphony
Orchestra for 19 seasons, 1945-1964. (The Denver Symphony later
became the Colorado Symphony Orchestra in 1989.) Saul Caston
died in Winston-Salem, North Carolina on July 28, 1970.
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1945-1958 Samuel G. Krauss
Gilbert Johnson, Seymour Rosenfeld, Donald McComas, Samuel Krauss (right) in
Samuel Krauss was born in Salem, Ohio December 3, 1909 of
parents who had emigrated from Hungary. At age 12,
Krauss began study with
at the Curtis Institute. Sam Krauss as a teenager played with several
Philadelphia bands, before graduating from Curtis in the Class of 1934.
Kraus then became Principal trumpet in the National Symphony Orchestra of
Washington, D.C. for one season in 1935-1936. (The National Symphony
was noted for its high turn-over of musicians, said to be the consequence of
low salaries and the acerbic criticism of the Music Director and former
Philadelphia Orchestra cellist
). Samuel Krauss then went to the Saint Louis Symphony where he was
Principal trumpet from for eight seasons 1936-1944, leaving during the 1943-1944
season to go to Philadelphia. In Saint Louis, Samuel Krauss
was followed by Seymour Rosenfeld who also later joined the Philadelphia
Orchestra in 1946. In 1944, during the 1943-1944 season, Samuel Krauss joined the
Philadelphia Orchestra trumpet section, but he seems to have taken over the first
chair trumpet responsibilities from Saul Caston during early 1945 156.
Samuel Krauss was officially named Principal trumpet of the Philadelphia Orchestra
the next season 1945-1946. Samuel Krauss was remained Principal trumpet
of the Philadelphia Orchestra until the 1957-1958 season, when Eugene Ormandy decided
to make a change. In the next season 1958-1959, Samuel Krauss was named
Co-Principal with his student Gilbert Johnson. Samuel Krauss remained with
the Philadelphia Orchestra trumpet section as Co-Principal trumpet from
1958-1968 and as fourth trumpet 1968-1974. However, orchestra
records show that Sam Krauss but did not complete the 1973-1974 season, and
resigned from the orchestra in December, 1973. Samuel Krauss also taught
at the Curtis Institute for 21 seasons, 1947-1968. Among his students was
, his future successor. Krauss was a famous trainer and instructor,
and taught at the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, at Temple University
in Philadelphia, and at the University of Michigan, as well
as at Curtis. Sam Krauss moved to Evanston, Illinois in 1982, where
he died on May 18, 1992.
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1958-1975 Gilbert D. Johnson
Gilbert Johnson, center, holds the 1967 Grammy won by the Philadelphia Brass Ensemble
back row: Abe Torchinsky, tuba, Glenn Dodson, Principal trombone, M. Dee Stewart,
trombone, Tyrone Breuninger trombone
front row: Mason Jones, Principal horn, Gilbert Johnson, Principal trumpet,
Seymour Rosenfeld trumpet
Gilbert Johnson was born on September 10, 1927. Johnson studied
at the Hartt School of Music at the University of Hartford graduating
with BMus. He then studied at the Curtis Institute, studying
with Samuel Krauss, whom he later succeeded as Principal trumpet of the
Phildalelphia Orchestra. Gilbert Johnson graduated from Curtis in
the Class of 1950. After Curtis, Gilbert Johnson was Principal
trumpet of the New Orleans Philharmonic. Gilbert Johnson joined
the Philadelphia Orchestra as Co-Principal trumpet in 1958, just before
the Philadelphia Orchestra began their May-June tour in Europe, including Eastern
Europe and the Soviet Union. Gilbert Johnson sat at the first trumpet stand
with his Curtis teacher Samuel Krauss. In the next season, Sam Krauss and
Gilbert Johnson switched positions, with Gilbert Johnson becoming Principal trumpet
in 1959-1960. Gilbert Johnson served the Philadelphia Orchestra for seventeen
seasons until the end of 1974-1975. After retiring from the Philadelphia Orchestra
at the end of the 1974-1975 season, Gilbert Johnson was Professor of Trumpet at the
University of Miami 1975 until his death in 2002. During his initial retirement
years in South Florida, Gilbert Johnson was also Principal trumpet with the Florida
Philharmonic. Gilbert Johnson sadly died of kidney cancer on September 8, 2002
in Miami, age 74.
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Frank John Kaderabek
Frank Kaderabek was born in May, 1929 in Chicago. His parents
emigrated from Czechoslovakia in 1921. In 1938, he began trumpet
study with a local Czech-background teacher. In about 1945,
Kaderabek began study at the Chicago Musical College, and also
played in the youth training orchestra: the Chicago Civic Orchestra.
At that time in Chicago, he studied with Adolph 'Bud' Herseth of the
Chicago Symphony. In 1950, with the beginning of the Korean War,
Kaderabek joined the West Point Band (with Mel Broiles as solo
trumpet). This led to him having access to New York City musicians,
and Frank Kaderabek further studied Harry Glantz (New York Philharmonic
and NBC Symphony Principal trumpet and Philadelphia Principal 1915-1917)
and Nathan Prager (second trumpet of the New York Philharmonic).
Frank Kaderabek then joined the trumpet section of the Dallas
Symphony in about 1952, where he remained for five seasons.
During the summers at this time, Kaderabek played with the Grant Park
Symphony concerts in Chicago. Kaderabek says he was playing a
Eldon Benge B flat trumpet all during this period. He switched
to a C trumpet beginning in Chicago 59. After playing
as an extra for a Fritz Reiner La Mer recording, and after Reiner firing
the CSO third trumpet, Frank Kaderabek was hired by Reiner as third
trumpet 59. Kaderabek remained at the Chicago Symphony
1958-1966, under Fritz Reiner and Jean Martinon. This led to Frank
Kaderabek then being appointed Principal trumpet of the Detroit Symphony
from about 1966-1975. Then, in 1975 he was appointed Principal
trumpet of the Philadelphia Orchestra, under Eugene Ormandy,
suceeding long-time Principal trumpet Gilbert Johnson.
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1995-present David Bilger
David Bilger was born in Wisconsin in 1961. In a 1993 interview 146,
Bilger said "...[I] started playing cornet in the band in fourth grade, along
with almost every other kid in the school district of Brookfield, Wisconsin..."
Bilger studied with Dennis Najoom of the Milwaukee Symphony in
High School and David Hickman at the University of Illinois. After admission
to the Juilliard School, David Bilger studied with Mark Gould who was Principal
trumpet of the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra. Mark Gould was also with
David Bigler a founder of the the New York Trumpet Ensemble, a brass chamber group.
The Ensemble consists of Thomas Bontrager, a classically
trained trumpet musician who frequently plays jazz, Scott Thornburg Principal
trumpet of several orchestras, including New York City Symphony and the Orchestra
of St. Lukes, David Bilger and
Mark Gould who was Principal trumpet of the Metropolitan
Opera Orchestra 1974-2003. Click on the thumbnail below
to see an early picture of the New York Trumpet Ensemble,
with the musicians listed above shown left to right.
David Bilger was also the first-prize winner of the
1985 Concert Artists Guild International
Competition. In the summer of 1990, David Bilger played in the summer
season of the New York Philharmonic. Starting in 1988, David Bilger
joined the Dallas Symphony, first as Co-Principal trumpet,
and moving into the Principal chair 1991-1995. In 1995,
David Bilger won the competition to become Principal trumpet of the
Philadelphia Orchestra, succeeding Frank Kaderabek, and continuing the long
tradition of excellence of the Philadelphia trumpet section. As well
as his responsibilities as section head, Bilger acts as chairman of the
artistic committee of the Philadelphia Orchestra. David Bilger is also a
composer, such as Point/Counterpoint, a work for trumpet, horn and piano
showing the expressive possibilities of the trumpet. His wife
Angela Cordell Bilger is a horn player who has also played with the
Philadelphia Orchestra. David Bilger continues in active demand
in teaching. He joined the faculty of the Hugh Hodgson School
of Music at the University of Georgia 2011-2013, while continuing his
program teaching at the Curtis Institute and at the Boyer College
of Music - Temple University. All this while continuing his full schedule
with the Philadelphia Orchestra. David Bilger has recorded a number of
CDs. Of particular note is First Chairs, a CD of music of
Samuel Adler (1928- ), also of the Juilliard School, featuring extended solo
music performed by some of the most famous Principals of US orchestras, including
Bilger. Another is a stylish recording of the Brandenburg Concertos
by the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center with exciting playing by
David Bilger in the challenging Concerto no 2 --- the set is one of the
best Brandenburg recordings available.
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Trombones and Tubas of the Philadelphia Orchestra
The "Low Bass" of the Philadelphia Orchestra have a history of
distinction, particularly beginning with the tenure of Leopold Stokowski
in 1912. The so-called "Philadelphia Sound" which
Stokowski created, and which Eugene Ormandy, in his unique way continued,
is not only the rich string sound and legato style typical of the orchestra.
It also begins with the low bass sonority of the orchestra.
This bass sound then builds through the stings and the high brass and
woodwinds producing rich, integrated sound sometimes called the
"Philadelphia Sound". Although many said that Riccardo
Muti changed (a few detractors said destroyed) this sound, yet it continues
today, heard in each concert.
A section devoted to the trombones and tubas of the Philadelphia Orchestra
since 1900 will be added here soon.
Eric Carlson, second trombone, Nitzan Haroz, Principal trombone,
Matt Vaughn, Associate Principal trombone, Blair Bollinger,
Bass trombone, (l to r) the great Philadelphia Orchestra trombone choir.
Gold and Silver, passing the baton (or tuba), Paul Krzywicki, Principal tuba
of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1972-2005, and Carol Jantsch,
Principal tuba named in 2006, both doing some "heavy lifting"
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Timpani and Percussion of the Philadelphia Orchestra
Eugene Ormandy and the Philadelphia percussion section:
Ormandy: "Percussion - a little louder"
Percussion: "We don't have anything"
Ormandy: "That's right, play it louder please..."
The Philadelphia Orchestra has a history of leadership in its Principal timpani
and in its percussion section second to none. A section on the percussion
of the orchestra will be added here soon.
Don Luzzi, timpani
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Pay and Working Conditions of the Philadelphia Orchestra.
During the Twentieth Century, pay and working conditions for the musicians
of major U.S. symphony orchestras has gradually improved. However, for
the first half of the century, the working life of even the leading American
orchestra musician was "terrible hard". The concert
season prior to World War 1 was only about 20 weeks even
for the musicians of leading U.S. orchestras.
In 1901, the Philadelphia Orchestra season was of 20 weeks, with 71
concerts 63. That same year, the Boston Symphony
Orchestra season was 24 weeks 80. In 1930, the New York
Philharmonic and the Philadelphia Orchestra each had a 30-week
seasons. Then, in 1930, supporters of the Philadelphia
Orchestra decided to create an 8 week summer program for the
Philadelphia Orchestra at reduced prices. This program
was located in a new amphitheater, called "Robin Hood Dell",
in Fairmount Park, in western Philadelphia. This brought the
musicians closer to full employment, but still only 38 of 52
Before World War 2, many musicians in the leading U.S.
orchestras were from Europe. These musicians took a ship to the US
typically in mid-September, leaving their families behind. They stayed in a
rooming house or shared apartments with colleagues, and then sailed back
to Europe in May. They spent the summers with their families and
perhaps playing the the summer beer garden orchestras where food and
drink were sold in an outdoor atmosphere. They would then board
the boat for the US in September.
Gradually, during the 1910s, 1920s, and 1930s, American musicians began
to fill the leading orchestras. This was particularly the case
after about 1920 when US music conservatories such as the Curtis Institute
in Philadelphia, and the Institute of Musical Art (later Juilliard) in New
York began to train young musicians. However, in these years orchestra
musicians still needed employment from May to September, when their orchestra
would be silent. These musicians would also play at Summer festivals.
Many Philadelphia Orchestra musicians played in the Bach Festival in Bethlehem,
Pennsylvania 70, which started the same year as the Philadelphia
Orchestra in 1900. The Festival takes place in May. Some players
also participated in the Cincinnati May Festival, and the Spring Festival in
Ann Arbor, Michigan, or the many other spring festivals. In Boston,
George W. Stewart
organized the Boston Festival
Orchestra, made up primarily of Boston Symphony Musicians, but with a number
of Philadelphia musicians which played the summer festivals in the
eastern United States in the 1890s and 1900s.
The Robin Hood Dell concerts in Philadelphia's Fairmount Park provided
an additional 8 weeks of employment for Philadelphia Orchestra musicians.
Also, the musicians' year increased with the expanded season of the Philadelphia
Orchestra. Then, in 1966, a prolonged dispute and strike between the
Philadelphia Orchestra musicians and the Orchestra Board lead to more
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The 1966 Philadelphia Orchestra Strike
The quest of major U.S. orchestras to gain year-around
employment and improved benefits and pay reached a new
peak in the first half of the 1960s. No U.S. orchestra,
with the exception of Boston, had 52 week employment.
Boston, with Koussevitzky's development of the festival at
Tanglewood achieved a 52 week season in 1947. New York
and Philadelphia had less. In Philadelphia, the working
season by 1944 was still only 32 weeks 60, plus
an additional 8 weeks with the Robin Hood Dell concerts.
By 1960, the Philadelphia Orchestra season had extended to about 42 weeks.
By 1960 also, orchestra musicians across the country were seeking better salaries,
year-around employment, medical benefits, and more protection against sudden,
arbitrary dismissal. However, orchestra Boards, who tended to be run by
wealthy civic-minded individuals regarded the orchestra musicians as artists.
The had trouble thinking of the orchestra musicians as workers who might strike
for better conditions.
Philadelphia was not an exception. After a series of fruitless and
acrimonious negotiations, The Philadelphia Orchestra went on strike in
strike in September, 1966. The 1966 strike lasted 58 days.
One major consequence of the eventual 1966 settlement was, for the first
time, the Philadelphia Orchestra had 52 week employment for its musicians.
As a flavor of what this meant to the musicians, Robert Harper, bass trombone
with the Philadelphia Orchestra for 38 seasons 1943-1981 said: "...when
we finally went to a 52 week season, I was able to start saving money..."
This resulted in further changes. Since the musicians were paid in
the Summer, the Philadelphia Orchestra Association sought to add Summer
concerts. This was achieved by the annual addition of the Philadelphia
Orchestra to the Summer festival at the Saratoga Performing Arts Center,
in up-state New York. For the first time, the musicians of the
Philadelphia Orchestra were guaranteed a 52 week season 64.
However, this was not the end of tensions and confrontations
between the Philadelphia Orchestra and the Orchestra Association.
The economic pressures experienced by U.S. orchestras, and still
existing today, resulted in clashes each decade after 1966.
The Philadelphia Orchestra went on strike in September, 1990,
causing cancellation of the opening night concert. Much of the
negotiations then dealt with medical insurance, pensions, vacation,
and topics such as "string leave", as much as with base
salary levels. The Philadelphia Orchestra musicians also briefly
walked out in 2004. In 2009, the musicians accepted
temporary pay cuts to help reduced the economic stress which
the Orchestra was still experiencing.
Even today, Orchestra seasons for regional orchestras
remain well below an annual employment. For
example, the orchestra contract for the Alabama Symphony
Orchestra in 2009 is 41 weeks. The North Carolina
Symphony employment is for 44 weeks.
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Philadelphia Orchestra 2011 - Bankruptcy
In 2011, the Philadelphia Orchestra experienced further financial
difficulties in part due to dropping attendance at Kimmel Center.
In April, 2011 the Board of the orchestra decided to file for
bankruptcy protection with the Philadelphia courts. Needless to
say, this was a dismaying development for the Philadelphia Orchestra
musicians and for the orchestra's many fans. The effect on
morale seems to have been as much regarding uncertainty about the future
as any immediate effect on income, although pay cuts have been agreed
and the future of musicians pensions is an added concern.
In November, 2011, the bankruptcy court allowed the Philadelphia Orchestra
Association to transfer its pension obligations for musicians and staff
to a Federal agency: the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation.
This agency takes over the pension obligations of defined benefit programs
from "distressed" single payers. With this change, the Federal
agency will take over responsibility for these pension payments, rather than
the Philadelphia Orchestra Association. Because of the limits on the
maximum pension benefit currently guaranteed by the Pension Benefit Guaranty
Corporation, retired Philadelphia Orchestra musicians will receive a smaller
pension than the negotiated Philadelphia Orchestra defined benefit pension.
Some observers believe that the recent departure of several musicians
are the consequence of these disruptions. These include
Efe Baltacigil becoming Principal cello of the
Stephen Wyrczynski accepting a tenured Professor
position at Indiana University and
José Maria Blumenschein leaving to
become Co-Concertmaster of the WDR Symphony Orchestra, Cologne.
, Principal trombone will take a leave of absence from the Philadelphia Orchestra
for the 2012-2013 season in order to accept the Principal trombone position with
the Los Angeles Philharmonic (the first Los Angeles season being a tenure trial
Jonathan Chu joins the Boston Symphony
viola section beginning September, 2012.
In October, 2010, the New York Philharmonic offered Philadelphia Orchestra
Ricardo Morales the position
of Principal clarinet, a position which had been open since the end of the
2008-2009 season following the retirement of Stanley Drucker.
In April, 2011, the Philharmonic announced that Ricardo Morales would take up
the New York Principal clarinet position in September 2012. However, upon
reflection, in March 2012, Ricardo Morales let it be known that he had decided
against accepting the New York Philharmonic offer. Of couse, all
Philadelphia Orchestra fans are thrilled by this resolution, and the
Philadelphia Orchestra woodwind section continues its rich history of
After 15 months of bankruptcy, the Philadelphia Orchestra emerged on
July 30, 2012. This favorable development was coupled with the
good news of the arrival of Yannick Nézet-Séguin as Music Director.
Determining how these ongoing developments will play out will require
time. The year of bankruptcy was a year in which Orchestra management
was perhaps less able to fully focus on the priority of increasing orchestra endowments
and contributions and assuring stability. During this time, potential
donors, key to the Orchestra's financial future seem also to have been affected
by the monthly changing events. The full effects of reductions of orchestra
musicians salaries and pensions and the reduction of the orchestra size
down to about 96 (and with several openings) will likely be realized only
over time. Meanwhile, all fans of the Philadelphia Orchestra hope
and await better times in the future.
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Principal Musicians of Major American Orchestras
There seems to be a surprising lack of historical information on the
musicians of the leading orchestras of the United States. Consequently,
out of my own interest I have compiled information on the musicians of the
major U.S. orchestras listed below.
In most cases, this information is organized into to separate lists for
- First is a listing all the PRINCIPAL Musicians of that orchestra.
This lists in chronological order all the Principal, or first-chair
musicians of the orchestra page.
- Second is a listing of ALL the musicians of each orchestra
since its creation.
Your added information or corrections about any of these orchestras
or musicians would be welcome simply by
contacting me as shown at the foot of this page.
Click on any of the links below to read about the musicians of leading
United States symphony orchestras:
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If you have any comments or questions about this Leopold Stokowski site,
please e-mail me (Larry Huffman) at e-mail address:
1 Appendix I. Ardoin, John, editor. The
Philadelphia Orchestra, A Century of Music. Temple University
Press. Philadelphia. 1999.
An excellent source of service information for Philadelphia Orchestra musicians
2 page 395-396. Heiles, Anne Mischakoff.
America's Concertmasters. Harmonie Park Press.
Sterling Heights, MI. 2007. ISBN-13 978-0-89990-139-8
One of the few truly great books on Concertmasters and musicians of US orchestras.
A wealth of information, carefully researched and entertainingly written.
page 6. Champouillon, David. International Trumpet Guild Journal.
Manhattan, Kansas. May 1999.
4 Page 59. Kupferberg, Herbert.
Those Fabulous Philadelphians. Charles Scribner's
Sons. New York. 1969. ISBN 0491003943.
Page 297. Daniel, Oliver Stokowski A Counterpoint of
View. Dodd, Mead & Company. New York 1982 ISBN 0-396-07936-9.
page 398. Heiles, Anne Mischakoff.
America's Concertmasters. Harmonie Park
Press, Sterling Heights, Michigan. 2007. ISBN-13
5 Page 222-224. Gerson, Robert A.
Music in Philadelphia . Theodore Presser
Company. Philadelphia. 1940.
6 Page 600. Promenade Concerts.
The Musical Times. London, UK. September 1, 1904. also
Page 319. London Concerts.
The Musical Times. London, UK. May 1, 1907
7 page 222. Saleskim, Gdal.
Famous Musicians of a Wandering Race. Kessinger Publishing.
2006. ISBN 142862516X
8 page 196. Saleskim, op. cit.
9 page 396. Heiles, Anne Mischakoff.
America's Concertmasters. Harmonie Park Press,
Sterling Heights, Michigan. 2007. ISBN-13 978-0-89990-139-8.
6. White, John. Lionel Tertis: The
First Great Virtuoso of the Viola Boydell Press.
Rochester, 2006. ISBN 184383278X
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32 The Encyclopedia of Cleveland
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56 Slonimsky, Nicolas. Program
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57 Cedar Rapids Gazette - Cedar Rapids,
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58 Entertainment: The Brooklyn Daily Eagle..
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59 Raschella, John A Tribute to Frank Kaderabek:
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60 Rosenbaum, Samuel R. The Philadelphia Orchestra
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67 page 11. Musical Chit-chat.
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68 page 14. Fritz Scheel Nervous Wreck.
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69 page 7. Fritz Scheel Dies.
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70 Page 177. Kupferberg, Herbert.
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71 pages 260-262. Faust, Albert Bernhardt.
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72 Keffer Collection of Sheet Music.
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75 page 56. Ryan, Thomas Recollections
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81 page 1. Stokowski Quits Phila. Orchestra.
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82 page 79. Ardoin, John, editor. The
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83 Eugene Ormandy - A Centennial Celebration.
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84 pages 156-162. Rosenberg, Deena and Bernard.
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85 Philharmonia Orchestra History. Philharmonia
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86 Music Section. Wakin, Daniel J. Muti Named New
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87 Lebrecht, Norman. The Maestro Myth: Great Conductors in Pursuit
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88 Music Section. Wakin, Daniel J. and Povoledo, Elisabetta.
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89 page 14. Kurnick, Judith K.
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90 Heiles, Anne Mischakoff. Mischa Mischakoff,
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91 pages 26-29. Kupferberg, Herbert.
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92 pages 32-33. Ardoin, John, editor. The
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Wendling Quartet to Give Opening Concert Tomorrow.
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94 Page 25, Music Section. Aldrich, Richard. The
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95 Page 29, Music Section. Aldrich, Richard.
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96 page 13. Symphony Orchestra will Give Concerts
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97 page 40. Van Den Burg Joins Faculty at
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98 page 22. Cellist to be Soloist Over
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99 page 5. Van Den Burg to Lead Symphony
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100 page 24. Music Institute Plans Summer Program
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103 page 23. The Horn Call, Volumes 1-3.
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104 American Consulate General Death of American
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105 pages 24-25. Nathan, G. J. and Mencken, H. L.
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106 page 2. Orchestra Principals All American Trained
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107 Page 40. Inter-American Music Festival, Issue 2
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108 page 348-349. Keim, Friedel.
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109 Steinberg, David. Professor falls under flute's spell.
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110 Page 306. Toff, Nancy. Monarch
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112 page ii. Fair, Demetra Baferos Fair.
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114 page F-2. Robert Fries of Oberlin
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115 page 205. Marckwardt, Albert H. Charles C. Fries.
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116 page 4. Twenty-fourth Annual Commencement and
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117 page 1. Philadelphia Orchestra Horn Section at NHW.
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118 page 12. Music Club To Open Season
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119 page 22. A Fine Concert
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120 Franz Trenner, Franz, English Translation by Bernhard Bruechle.
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121 Morley-Pegge, R. The orchestral French Horn. Its origin
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122 page 22. by 'C.L.G.' Music
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123 page 14. by 'Musicus' Glasgow
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124 page 23. Marquardt Noted Soloist, Here for Summer
. Colorado Springs Gazette. Colorado Springs. Colorado.
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125 Dale, Maryclaire page 13.
Philadelphia conductor to end career with Beethoven's Ninth
. Altoona Mirror. Altoona, PA.
May 10, 2003.
126 Rodríguez-Peralta, Phyllis White.; Chapter 3.
Philadelphia Maestros: Ormandy, Muti, Sawallisch
. Temple University Press. Philadelphia, PA.
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127 Eschenbach, Christoph.; Christoph Eschenbach
128 page 32. Cooper, Stefan Trumpet Players of
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129 pages 226,227. Tarr, Edward H. Tarr, Carter, Stewart Carter,
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134 page 3.
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135 Samuel H. Mayes, 73; Was Principal
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136 Schweitzer, Vivien. Curtis Institute’s
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137 McLellan, Joseph. Roberto Diaz and the
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138 Loveland, Elaina. Merging Music and Academe.
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139 Yancich, Milan. An Orchestra Musician's Odyssey:
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140 page 239. Dwight, John Sullivan.
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Maxim Olefsky, 90, pianist, conductor.
Chicago Sun-Times. Chicago, Illinois. December 26, 1989.
142 Gillespie, John and Anna.
Notable Twentieth-century Pianists.
Greenwood Press. Chicago, Illinois. 1995. ISBN-13: 9780313296956.
143 Chicago Symphony website, Rosenthal Archives, collected
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144 page 5.
Philadelphia Symphony Names Winnipeg Cellist.
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145 page 4. Concertgoers Hear Prominent Cellist.
Benton Harbor News-Palladium. Benton Harbor, Michigan. February 4, 1957.
146 pages 42-46. Harvison, Emory David
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147 Kennicott, Philip. NSO Strings Fall Short
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148 Obituary: John de Lancie Oboist
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149 Page 7 Hugo Olk is Prominent.
Burlington Hawk Eye. Burlington, Iowa. December 24, 1913.
150 Page 5 Music and Musicians.
Trenton Times. Trenton, New Jersey. November 25, 1902.
151 Page 139. Rischin, Moses The Promised City
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152 Names Make News.
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153 Pages 10-21. Gunlogson, Elizabeth Stanley
Hastey: His Life and Teaching. Florida State University College of
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153 Fried, Stephen. Norman Carol Bows Out.
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155 page 5 Joins Orchestra.
Anderson Sunday Herald. Anderson, Indiana. October 13, 1957.
156 page 1. Annual Bach Festival in Phila.
The Chester Times. Chester, Pennsylvania. May 22, 1945.
157 Philadelphia Scrapple.
Time Magazine. New York, New York. April 10, 1939.
158 page 9. Famous Violinist Dead.
Racine Daily Journal. Racine, Wisconsin. February 3, 1911.
159 474th Concert by Philad'a Musical Academy
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161 page 4. Joseph Horner.
Neuer Pennsylvanischer Staatsbote. Philadelphia,
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162 Storch, Laila. Marcel Tabuteau: How Do
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Indiana University Press. Bloomington, Indiana. 2008.
163 page 823. The Kruse Quartet
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164 pages 9-19. Tracy, Bruce.
Orchestra Showcase: The Philadelphia Orchestra.
ITA Journal. International Trombone Association.
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165 page 79. Danforth, Roy Harrison.
Music News of the Weekend. Oakland Tribune.
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166 page 2. L.A. Baroque Players in 6th Concert
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167 page 41. Tollefsen Trio at Seaside Club
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168 page 8. Bauers, Sandra.
Portrait of the Cellist.
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169 page 158. Bierley, Paul.
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170 page 4. Music.
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171 page 4. Release Musician from Red Prision.
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172 Caro, Mark. Musicians swap notes.
Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. August 30, 2011.
173 page 8. Stephen Deak Tells of
Plans for Symphony Orchestras First Season.
Hagerstown Daily Mail. Hagerstown, Maryland. September 27, 1935.
174 page 8. Conductors Baton to be
Wielded by Accomplished Musician.
Hagerstown Daily Mail. Hagerstown, Maryland. November 12, 1935.
175 page 4. Oar Splinters.
Lebanon Daily News. Lebanon, Pennsylvania. March 2, 1882.
176 page 8. Professor of Music
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February 19, 1909.
177 Edmond Roelofsma.
New York Times. New York, New York. April 2, 1943.
178 page 38 Roens, Samuel.
Billboard Magazine. New York, New York. May 15, 1954.
179 page 17. Dayo, Ray Radiocasting
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180 page 23. Blames Woman.
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181 Flegler, Joel. Bernard Phillips.
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182 Kennesy, W. Jay. Annual Organ Recital to
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183 page 437. Heiles,
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184 page 30.
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185 page 2. Concert Society of Upper Darby.
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186 page 5. Russian Orchestra Fails
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187 page 41. 'Papa' Schwar 71 Tympanist
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188 page 4. Society.
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189 Crown, Tom. Chicago Symphony Orchestra
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190 Chicago Orchestra's Loss.
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191 Sorensen, Sterling. Stage, Screen In Madison.
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192 page 15. Jan Savitt, Noted Bandman
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193 Amend, J. Jerome. Correction To: Trumpet Sections of
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194 Kozinn, Allan.
Marilyn Costello, 72, Harpist For the Philadelphia Orchestra.
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195 St. George, Donna.
Henry Schmidt, 90; Was Violinist, Personnel Manager For Orchestra.
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196 Dobrin, Peter.
Isadore Schwartz, 86, Phila. Orchestra retiree.
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197 Zingel, Hans Joachim, Palkovic, Mark editor and
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198 Randel, Don Michael. Harvard Biographical
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199 page 3. The Coming Musical
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200 page E5. Recitals of the Week.
Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, New York. March 11, 1928.
201 page 10. Four Women to be Heard Here with the
Montreal Gazette. Montreal, Quebec. May 14, 1938.
214 page 82. The Palace Warned.
Oakland Tribune. Oakland, California. November 12, 1922.
215 page 125. Canarina, John.
Pierre Monteux, Maître. op.cit.
216 page 7. Claremont Quartet to Be Heard at Delhi
Tech. Oneonta Star. Oneonta, New York. April 13, 1961.
217 page 5. Concert Series Ticket Drive Now Under
Way. Fairbanks Daily News. Fairbanks, Alaska.
September 11, 1959.
218 page 8. Popular Lecture Course.
Salem Daily News. Salem, Massachusetts. October 26, 1889.
219 Weait, Christopher. The New Symphony
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list of personnel 1922-1972. Toronto, Canada.
220 Philadelpha Orchestra press release.
Glenn Janson. Philadelphia Orchestra
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221 page 2. The Philadelphia Orchestra.
Washington Post. Washington, DC. October 23, 1904.
222 page 14. Cincinnati Zooological Gardens.
Variety. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1906.
223 page 1. Rumson Orchestra to Give Final
Concert . Red Bank Journal. Red Bank, New Jersey. April 17, 1941.
224 page 10. Women Musicians Will Appear With Philadelphians
At U of A . Tucson Daily Citizen. Tucson, Arizona. May 14, 1957.
225 Dobrin, Peter.
Erez Ofer Will Leave Orchestra Sooner Than Was Expected.
Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. February 19, 1998.
226 Dobrin, Peter.
V. Reynolds, 78, Violinist And Teacher.
Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. February 10, 2000.
227 Panaritis, Maria.
Julius Schulman, 84, Former Phila. Orchestra Violinist.
Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. September 13, 2000.
228 Dobrin, Peter.
Another Philadelphia Orchestra Principal Player Leaves.
Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. February 2, 2012.
229 Boston Symphony Programme Notes 1917-1918.
Boston Symphony Associatione Boston, Massachusetts. 1918.
230 Jacobs, Walter. pages 18-24.
Famous Bandmasters: Frank R. Seltzer.
Jacobs' Band Monthly. Boston, Massachusetts. volume 6. January, 1921.