Principal Musicians of the Philadelphia Orchestra
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Principal Musicians of the Philadelphia Orchestra
A Chronological Listing
of the Principal Musicians of the Philadelphia Orchestra
with Biographical Remarks
Standing: Ferdinand Del Negro, bassoon, Marcel Tabuteau, oboe, Anton Horner, horn
Seated: Rufus Arey, clarinet, William Kincaid, flute in 1923 2
Musicians of the Philadelphia Orchestra
Music Director Eugene Ormandy addressing the Philadelphia Orchestra musicians during rehearsal:
"Relax. Don't be nervous. My God, it's the Philadelphia Orchestra !"
This website has two listings of musicians of the great Philadelphia Orchestra:
- A listing of all the Musicians of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1900-today. This list includes the names, country and date of birth and death, instruments, positions and dates of service of all permanent Philadelphia Orchestra musicians. To go to this list of all Philadelphia musicians, click: Philadelphia Orchestra Musicians List
- A listing of the Principal Musicians of the Philadelphia Orchestra covering the Principal, or first chair musicians, with short biographical notes and photographs. This listing is the subject of this webpage, shown below.
A Listing of Philadelphia Orchestra PRINCIPAL Musicians
This page of the www.stokowski.org site seeks to list all the Principal, or first-chair musicians of the Philadelphia Orchestra since its inception in 1900. The principal conductors or Music Directors of the Philadelphia Orchestra are also featured. With each musician, I have tried to reconstruct a short biography and to include a photograph of the musician. In the case of Rudolph Hennig, the Orchestra's first Principal cello, we even have the pleasure of the famous Thomas Eakins painting The Cellist showing Hennig practicing in 1896.
A Listing of ALL Philadelphia Orchestra Musicians
This is intended to be a complete listing of all of the permanent musicians of the Philadelphia Orchestra since its creation in 1900. To see this listing of ALL the Philadelphia Orchestra musicians, click on the link: Philadelphia Orchestra Musicians List.
Please have a look at these listings, and in case of any corrections or other information, please contact me, at the link below.
Music Directors of the Philadelphia Orchestra
Fritz Scheel in California, 1904
Fritz Scheel was born in Falkenberg, near Lübeck in the north of Germany about 50 km from the North Sea on 7 November 1852. He came from a musical family, his father being conductor of the symphony in Lübeck 69. At age 12, he began violin study with Ferdinand David (1810-1873). By age 17, he was Concertmaster of the orchestra at Bremerhaven, Germany, about 100 km west of his birthplace. In 1884, after some conducting experience in Bremerhaven, Fritz Scheel was appointed Kappelmeister of the orchestra in Chemnitz (50 km south of Leipzig), Germany, succeeding Hans Sitt 41 (1850-1922). In 1893, Fritz Scheel was engaged by the impresario Dr. Florenz Ziegfeld (1867-1932) to conduct the Trocadero Orchestra at the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition 69. In the winter of 1893, Fritz Scheel took an orchestra, which he gave the name of Vienna Prater Orchestra to San Francisco for a festival. This led Fritz Scheel to organize concerts in San Francisco in 1894, 1895, 1896 and 1897. From this exposure, in 1904, Scheel was later engaged to perform a series of concerts in San Francisco, before the great earthquake, and before the creation of the San Francisco Symphony in 1911. Scheel's San Francisco orchestra then was of about 40 musicians 67. The concerts were sufficiently successful for Scheel to come back for at lest six concert series between 1893 and 1905. Fritz Scheel was also said to have admired the climate of the San Francisco Bay area.
Fritz Scheel and his orchestra in San Francisco 1894
Meanwhile, after conducting in Philadelphia's Woodside Park in 1900, Fritz Scheel was appointed to conduct the newly created Philadelphia Orchestra for its first season which began in November, 1900. Fritz Scheel was successful in building an orchestra of quality, which performed primarily the great Austro-German repertoire, rather than the summer garden orchestra musical mixture previously offered in Philadelphia. Scheel constantly recruited better players, primarily in Germany, and engaged leading guest artists, such as Richard Strauss, Fritz Kreisler, Felix Weingartner and Olga Samaroff, future wife of Leopold Stokowski. In 1906 and 1907, the mental condition of Fritz Scheel began to deteriorate. He became progressively more irritable, and erratic. Frances Anne Wister wrote: '...on one occasion, he had to be restrained from playing five symphonies at one concert.' 63. Scheel then broke down prior to a concert on 8 February 1907, and was described as being "a nervous wreck" 68. Scheel was taken by his doctor for a rest at the Atlantic City resort, but did not improve. He suffered from sleeplessness, and died the next month in Philadelphia on March 13, 1907, of what was described as "paresis" or paralysis, age only 54. Contemporary critics found Fritz Scheel's conducting to be dramatic, but not romantic. Scheel seems to have been closer to the precision and straightforward interpretation of a Weingartner, than to the romantic interpretation of, for example, Hans von Bülow.
An often-told Fritz Scheel story: It is said that Fritz Scheel enjoyed slang, and attempted to include slang expressions in his speech. One expression which particularly struck him was '...out of sight !', a reference to something very good. One morning, one of the Orchestra Board members saw Scheel and greeted him: 'Maestro, good morning ! and how are you ?'. Scheel answered: 'You don't see me !'
Karl Pohlig was born in Teplitz, Bohemia, now in the West of the Czech Republic on 10 February 1864. Karl Pohlig studied cello and piano in Weimar, Germany in the 1880s. In 1907, he was conductor of the Royal Court Orchestra in Stuttgart. Upon recommendations by Felix Mottl (1856-1911) of Berlin and Fritz Steinbach (1855-1916) of Cologne, Pohlig was hired by the Philadelphia Orchestra Association board in the Summer of 1907 91. When Karl Pohlig became Music Director of the Philadelphia Orchestra, he was able to gain commitment to a minimum orchestral complement of 80 players, rather than the 60-65 under Fritz Scheel previously. To this minimum complement would be added further hired players for works such as Berlioz. Although reviews of Pohlig concerts were at first satisfactory, they quickly became critical. Pohlig did have some success in expanding the repertoire of the orchestra, and in inviting Serge Rachmaninoff to guest-conduct the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1909, the beginning of a long relationship. However, the public and the musicians began to turn against Pohlig. The Orchestra is said to have found Pohlig to be abrasive and aloof (not unique among conductors). Olga Samaroff, a soloist with Pohlig found his conducting to be 'earthbound and uninspired' 92. Further, Pohlig and the Philadelphia Orchestra were ridiculed with faint praise and later with hostility by the New York City critics 91. This, and the revelation that Pohlig had had an extra-marital affair with his secretary finished Pohlig's career in Philadelphia. He was dismissed, but later paid his salary for the 1912-1913 season, as a way to ease his departure. Karl Pohlig then returned to Germany, where he became Music Director of the Braunschweig Court Opera in Brunswick in Lower Saxony, Germany, where he died on June 17, 1928.
For a brief biography of Leopold Stokowski, please click on the link:
Eugene Ormandy was born in Budapest, Hungary on 18 November 1899, as Jenö Blau. He was precocious musically, and took up the violin from an early age. He studied at the Royal National Academy of Music (later, the Franz Liszt Academy of Music) in Budapest, where he studied music interpretation with Leo Weiner (1885-1960), and violin with Jenö Hubay (1858-1937 and teacher of Josef Szigeti and Eddy Brown), and for whom Jenö Blau/Eugene Ormandy had been named 84. Ormandy's father wanted Eugene to be a famous child violinist. In 1913, Ormandy graduated from the Academy, and in 1916, earned his 'musician violinist' diploma. Ormandy then toured Germany and Hungary in 1917 with the Blüthner Orchestra 83. During 1920-1921, Ormandy toured Austria and France, and was featured under the name "Jenö B. Ormandy" 83. There are conflicting stories as to the choice of "Ormandy", and the conductor did not later explain. (I have never seen documentation of the often-repeated account that his mother's maiden name was "Rosalie Ormandy", which seems to be repeated from one writer to another without recourse to source documents.) In December, 1921, Ormandy came to the U.S. for a concert tour, anglicizing his name on the way to Eugene (the equivalent of " Jenö ") Ormandy. Upon arrival, he found the concert tour had not been organized. Jobless, he auditioned for fellow Hungarian Erno Rapée (1891-1945), conductor of the Capital Theater orchestra, one of the leading New York City movie theaters. Ormandy was hired as a second violinist, and quickly was moved up to Concertmaster. Then, beginning in 1924, Ormandy also began to conduct the theater orchestra. This conducting experience led Ormandy to become a staff conductor of CBS radio in New York City in the late 1920s. During this period, 1923-1929, Ormandy also made 16 recordings as a violinist. During the first week of November, 1931, by good fortune, and the aid of his manager Arthur Judson, Ormandy conducted the Philadelphia Orchestra, replacing an indisposed Arturo Toscanini. The success of this engagement led immediately (within one week) to Ormandy being engaged as Music Director of the Minneapolis Symphony. Ormandy was to succeed Henri Verbrugghen, who had just suffered a stroke 83. Eugene Ormandy was Music Director 1931–1936, improving the Minneapolis Orchestra's reputation, and making a series of critically appreciated recordings in 1934 and 1935. These recordings were aided financially by the fact that, due to the wording of their contracts, Minneapolis musicians were paid their normal salaries, but without royalties or other payments from recording. During that period, Ormandy and Minnesota were probably the most recorded orchestra in the United States. The recordings added greatly to Ormandy's reputation, and he guest-conducted in Philadelphia each season 1931-1935. In 1936, Ormandy was appointed co-conductor of the Philadelphia Orchestra with Stokowski, when it became apparent that Stokowski was determined to leave. This was announced 2 January 1936 81, with Ormandy conducting 26 weeks, and Stokowski 6 weeks 82. This began the longest tenure of a Music Director of a major U.S. orchestra, 44 years, 1936-1980. During his tenure, Ormandy demonstrated excellent musical memory, and a broad repertoire, including extensive contemporary music. He was particularly inspired in his many performances of Shostakovich, including during a visit of the composer to Philadelphia in 1960.
Ormandy continued the rich strings and legato style that has been called the 'Philadelphia Sound'. Ormandy was also criticized by some as lacking the ultimate spark of inspiration, and of being "the best of the second-rank conductors". Having attended over 60 Ormandy concerts, I know this faint praise not to be true. Ormandy's excellence in music from Schubert through Nielsen, to Rachmaninoff, to Hindemith, his many premieres of American composers, and his premieres of the works of Shostakovich demonstrated this (showing great understanding and insight with recordings that remain among the best today). His performances showed depth and genius, and in a contrast, for example to Stokowski, Ormandy's musical partnership with many and diverse soloists in concerti was consistently excellent. The many Ormandy - Philadelphia Orchestra recordings will allow the listener to judge Ormandy's music-making directly. Ormandy was also a man of character and integrity, and although demanding, was not the martinet which was the working manner of many other conductors of that era, such as Reiner (all the time) or Rodzinski (sometimes). Ormandy at the end of his career gave careful thought also to what we would call today 'succession planning', hand-picking the young Riccardo Muti to be his successor in 1980. Eugene Ormandy died in Philadelphia in March, 1985, greatly admired and respected by his musicians and audience.
Riccardo Muti was born in Naples, Italy on 28 July 1941. Muti studied piano at the Conservatory 'San Pietro a Maiella', Naples under Vincenzo Vitale (1908-1984). Later, Muti studied composition and conduction under Bruno Bettinelli (1913-2004) and Antonino Votto (1896-1985) at the Milan Conservatory. In 1967, Riccardo Muti won the first ranking at the Guido Cantelli conducting competition in Milan. Beginning 1968, and until 1980, Muti was Principal Conductor and Director of the annual opera festival at the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino. His growing prominence led to an invitation from Herbert von Karajan in the Summer of 1971 for Muti to conduct at the Salzburg Festival. Thereafter, Muti was a regular conductor of this Festival. From 1972-1980, Muti was first Principal Conductor, and then Music Director of the Philharmonia Orchestra, London 85. On 27 October 1972, Muti also made his first appearance with the Philadelphia Orchestra, invited by Eugene Ormandy who had heard Muti rehearsing in Florence 89. Then, upon the retirement of Eugene Ormandy, Music became Music Director of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1980-1992. 1986-2005 Muti was Music Director of the Teatro alla Scala, Milan. In the 1990s and 2000s, Riccardo Muti was a regular conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic and of the Vienna Philharmonic. In fact, it was frequently rumored in 2002 that Muti would become the Music Director of the Berlin Philharmonic, following Claudio Abbado, rather than Sir Simon Rattle who was appointed. Similar speculation took place before Abbado's surprise Berlin appointment in 1989 87. Muti has led the Vienna Philharmonic in 1996 on a Asian tour to to Japan, Korea, and Hong Kong. Muti has also conducted the Vienna Philharmonic New Year's concert at least 4 times. Opera politics around the world seem difficult, and apparently also at La Scala, Milan. In March, 2005 some of the staff of La Scala called for Riccardo Muti's departure. This was after a long-time rift between Muti and La Scala's administrative director 88. Of course, this has been written about many times, so further comment here is superfluous, except to add that critical and public acclaim for Muti performances at La Scala were uniformly adulatory, and he was credited for restoring historically informed and rejuvenated performances of any famous scores. After departing La Scala in 2005, Muti was a regular guest conductor of virtually every leading world orchestra. In May, 2008, the Chicago Symphony announced that Riccardo Muti would become Music Director in the 2010-2011 season 86. In late 2009 Muti was also appointed Music Director of Rome Opera. So, Riccardo Muti's history of leadership of many of the world's greatest musical ensembles continues.
A joke concerning Muti: Riccardo Muti programmed a mixture of music, familiar and unfamiliar, at least as rich as Stokowski or Ormandy. However, apparently some in Philadelphia did not approve. A Philadelphia joke was that when maestro Muti declined the offer to be Music Director of the New York Philharmonic "...he deprived the Big Apple of a decade of the music of Giuseppe Martucci...".
Update: It seems the Martucci story continues: On the 2011 Chicago Symphony European tour, Chicago Tribune reporter Mark Caro wrote about the Lucerne concert 172: "...when musicians arrived, they found a curve ball in the schedule: Instead of the Verdi, they’d be rehearsing a piece that many (if not most) of them didn’t know: Giuseppe Martucci’s Nocturne opus 70, no 1. Muti explained to the musicians and guests...that Martucci was a superlative composer, conductor and pianist of the late 19th and early 20th Centuries whose work became overshadowed..."
photo: Philadelphia Orchestra, Chris Lee, n.d.
Wolfgang Sawallisch was born on 26 August 1923 in Munich, Germany. He studied at the Wittelsbaucher High School of Music, and then at the Munich Conservatory 126, where he graduated with a diploma in conducting just after World War 2. In the German tradition, Sawallisch began his conducting experience at a provincial theater: the opera house in Augsburg (southwest Bavaria) in 1947. In Augsberg he was a coach and conductor, later becoming principal conductor. In the summers of 1952 and 1953, Sawallisch was assistant to Igor Markevich at the Mozarteum International Summer Academy in Salzburg, Austria. In 1953, age only 20, Sawallisch conducted the Berlin Philharmonic. Continuing his precocious conducting career, his debut at Bayreuth was in 1957, just before his 24th birthday in Tristan und Isolde. For ten seasons, 1960-1970, Wolfgang Sawallisch was Principal Conductor of the Wiener Symphoniker, which he took on tour in the United States in 1964 and in Japan in 1967. After Vienna, from 1971-1992, Wolfgang Sawallisch was Music Director of the Bavarian State Opera in his home town of Munich. Phyllis White Rodríguez-Peralta in her fine book on Philadelphia Orchestra conductors 126 writes: "...Riccardo Muti's unexpected resignation left the Philadelphia Orchestra in the unusual position of scrambling to find a music director in a relatively short period of time..." At age 70, Wolfgang Sawallisch was selected to succeeded Riccardo Muti as Music Director of the Philadelphia Orchestra. Although some thought of Sawallisch as an interim director (because of age), he lead the Orchestra with success for seven seasons, 1993-2003. As a tribute to his tenure, the Associated Press commented at the time of his retirement from Philadelphia: "...Sawallisch, 79, has hired about one-third of the orchestra's current musicians [note: he hired 40 musicians during his tenure], renewed the velvety Philadelphia Sound and survived a long-delayed move to a new concert hall in the $265 million Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts..."125. This "velvety" comment refers to the general opinion that Riccardo Muti had replaced the legato "Philadelphia Sound" of Stokowski and Ormandy with a more clinical and precise sound, not necessarily to the Orchestra's benefit in the opinion of many. After Philadelphia, Sawallisch toured as a guest conductor of the world's leading orchestras. However, in 2006, he announced his retirement due to periodic occurrences of low blood pressure.
Christoph Eschenbach was born in Breslau, Prussia, some 100 km east of Dresden (now Wroclaw, Poland) (where Walter Damrosch was also born) on 20 February 1940. Eschenbach lost both parents during World War 2; his mother in giving birth to Christoph, and his father in a punishment battalion in the German army. Christoph Eschenbach writes in his website: '...on January 31, 1946, marked by disease and death, my constant companions, I was released from the first five dark years of my childhood by Wallydore Eschenbach, my mother's cousin and my future adoptive mother. It was during the ensuing long year of my convalescence, a time in which my harrowing past robbed me of my power to speak, that I heard music for the first time. Wallydore Eschenbach, a pianist, singer and music teacher, played Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin, Rachmaninoff and Bach until the late hours of the night...' 127. After piano study with his stepmother, Wallydore Eschenbach, Christoph entered the Hochschule für Musik Köln in 1955, where he studied piano with Hans-Otto Schmidt-Neuhaus (also teacher of Karlheinz Stockhausen, and many others). Christoph Eschenbach's first musical fame came as a pianist, particularly when he won the Clara Haskil competition in Montreux in 1965. Further fame came from Christoph Eschenbach's many recordings for Deutsche Grammophone in classical (noted Mozart interpretations) and modern works (including a great Hans Werner Henze Piano Concerto no 2). During the 1970s, Christoph Eschenbach turned more and more to conducting. He studied conducting with George Szell for three years. He also regards Herbert von Karajan as a conducting mentor. Christoph Eschenbach was Chief Conductor of the Tonhalle Orchestra, Zurich 1982-1986. He was a very successful Music Director of the Houston Symphony for 11 seasons 1988-1999. He was during much of this period each summer also Music Director of the Ravinia Festival in Chicago 1994-2003. 1999-2002, Eschenbach was Artistic Director of the Schleswig-Holstein Music Festival, another summer festival held in three cities of northern Germany. In 2000, Christoph Eschenbach was named Music Director of L'Orchestre de Paris, where he stayed for 10 seasons. In the late 1990s, Wolfgang Sawallisch had indicated to the Philadelphia Orchestra Board that he wished to retire whenever his successor could be identified. Simon Rattle was approached, as was Christoph Eschenbach, and in 2001, Eschenbach was named to be Sawallisch's successor, beginning in the 2003-2004 season 126. Christoph Eschenbach was Music Director of the Philadelphia Orchestra for 5 seasons, 2003-2008 Also, after departing, in January and February, 2009, Christoph Eschenbach took the Philadelphia Orchestra on a three week tour of Europe. In 1910-1911 season, Christoph takes up the Music Director position of the National Symphony Orchestra of Washington, D.C.
Charles Dutoit with Concertmaster David Kim in 2010
Charles Dutoit was born in Lausanne, Switzerland on 7 October 1936. Dutoit gained admission to the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, where he studied violin and conducting. He then went on to the Accademia Musicale Chigiana in Siena, Italy where he studied conducting with Alceo Galliera (1910-1996), graduating in 1958. During the next two years, Dutoit played viola in a number of regional orchestras. He continued to conduct as a guest of l'Orchestre de la Suisse Romande and the Lausanne Chamber Orchestra. Charles Dutoit was a conductor for Swiss Radio 1964-1966. He also conducted for the ballet at the Vienna Opera 1965-1967. In a progression somewhat like the traditional German training of conductors, Charles Dutoit continued to conduct regional orchestras. Dutoit succeeded Paul Kletzki as conductor of the Bern Symphony 1968-1978. He also became Music Director of Orquesta Sinfónica Nacional de México 1973-1975. During 1975-1978 Charles Dutoit became conductor of the Göteborgs Symfoniker in Sweden. This was followed by what was the most famous appointment of the first part of his career, with his invitation to become conductor in Montréal, Canada. Charles Dutoit was Artistic Director of the Orchestre symphonique de Montréal 1977-2002. This was a highly successful period in which the Montréal orchestra's level of playing and a rich income stream from Dutoit's recordings with the orchestra reached new levels and provided prosperity to the orchestra. However, it was also sometimes a stormy relationship, particularly in the last years 231. On 11 April 2002 Charles Dutoit resigned prior to what would have been his twenty-fifth season in Montréal. Speaking recently with Philadelphia Orchestra musicians, including some who have know Charles Dutoit for a number of years, it seems that Philadelphia Orchestra musicians have greatly appreciated, respected and valued the leadership of Charles Dutoit in Philadelphia. During the financial crisis of the Philadelphia Orchestra during much of Charles Dutoit's tenure, he was an important source of stability and excellence.
Charles Dutoit's relationship with the Philadelphia Orchestra over the years has been was extensive. From 1990-1999, he was Music Director of Philadelphia summer concerts at the Mann Center for the Performing Arts in suburban Philadelphia. Then, following the resignation of Christoph Eschenbach as Philadelphia Music Director, in February 2007 came the good news that Charles Dutoit had agreed to become Chief Conductor and Artistic Adviser for the Philadelphia Orchestra for a four season term 2008-2012. This gave the Orchestra the stability of Dutoit's leadership and musicianship which has provided excellence during the transition to Yannick Nézet-Séguin in the 2012-2013 season While performing in Philadelphia, Charles Dutoit also assumed responsibilities as Principal Conductor and Artistic Director of the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra - London. Listening to Charles Dutoit and the Philadelphia Orchestra, a satisfying conclusion is that they consistently make beautiful music together at the highest levels. In the 2012-2013 The Philadelphia Orchestra named Charles Dutoit as Conductor Laureate, and he continues his musical popularity.
Yannick Nézet-Séguin was born in Montréal, Québec on 6 March 1975, son of two Montréal university professors, Serge Séguin and Claudine Nézet. Nézet-Séguin began piano studies early, and entered the Conservatoire de Musique du Québec in Montréal in about 1991. He also studied choral conducting with Joseph Flummerfelt at Westminster Choir College. In 2000, Yannick Nézet-Séguin was appointed Artistic Director and Principal Conductor of l'Orchestre Métropolitain in Montréal, a post he continues to hold. In 2008, Nézet-Séguin was named Music Director of the Rotterdam Philharmonic, succeeding Valery Gergiev; a position Nézet-Séguin continues today. He has also been a Principal Guest Conductor of the London Philharmonic. Yannick Nézet-Séguin was appointed as the 8th Music Director of the Philadelphia Orchestra beginning in the 2012-2013 season. Prior to 2012, Yannick Nézet-Séguin was guest conductor of the Philadelphia Orchestra with a title of Music Director Designate. Yannick Nézet-Séguin is also active in opera, appearing annually with the Metropolitan Opera and at La Scala Milan, the London’s Royal Opera Covent Garden in London. He has also been active in music festivals including the Baden-Baden Summer Festival, where Nézet-Séguin will conduct and record several of the Mozart opera, and also the Salzburg Festival. He has also recorded several CDs with the Rotterdam Philharmonic. The critical and audience success of Yannick Nézet-Séguin has led to the Philadelphia Orchestra returning to recording, with a contract with Deutsche Grammophon. His initial recording with the Philadelphia Orchestra was a tribute to Leopold Stokowski. The DGG recording included Le Sacre du Printemps coupled with several famous Stokowski transcriptions: Bach's Toccata and Fugue in D Minor, BWV 565, the "Little" Fugue in G Minor, BWV 578, the Passacaglia and Fugue in C Minor BWV 582, and Stravinsky's Pastorale.
Deutsche Grammophon CD 0289 479 1074 9
Yannick Nézet-Séguin's dynamic leadership and creative energy promise to help return the Philadelphia Orchestra to the consistently highest levels experienced throughout the history of this great Orchestra.
The Germania Orchestra and Origins of the Philadelphia Orchestra
The roots of the Philadelphia Orchestra can be traced to fifty years before its founding in 1900. This was with the visits of the Germania Musical Association Orchestra, the first U.S. orchestra which we would regard as being 'professional', even if they often failed to make a professional living from being musicians of this orchestra. The Germania Orchestra was a touring group of 24 musicians, all of whom were trained in Germany, who toured the eastern U.S. in 1848 and 1849, playing symphonic music. These German musicians, encouraged it is said by the European unrest of 1848, banded together with the determination to go to the U.S. and perform as a professional orchestra. In 1848, the Germania musicians voyaged to London and then to New York City 74. Their first concert was in New York City on October 5, 1848 71, followed by 20 more concerts in New York and Brooklyn. In January, 1849, the Germania Orchestra played in Philadelphia, again with critical praise, but financial losses 74. As and example, the Germania Orchestra regularly played the Scherzo from Mendelssohn's A Midsummer's Night Dream Overture which was received enthusiastically by the audiences. To put this into context, consider that Mendelssohn had only died about 18 months prior to this performance.
In many ways, the Germania Orchestra was a revelation, since orchestra playing in the U.S. at that time - certainly playing at a professional level - could be said to barely exist. In contrast, the Germania Orchestra was comprised of able musicians, playing together in ensemble, with a thorough understanding of the music. In spite of these advantages, the reception in Boston, New York and Philadelphia did not fund their growth. The Germania Musical Association continued, in a struggling way for some five years, mostly under the direction of Carl Bergmann 71.
Germania Orchestra in 1850 (left to right, with some guesses) Carl Zerrahn (at left with flute), G. Hoffitz, Charles M. Schmitz (violin), Ferdinand Thiede (bassoon), Karl Meisel (violin), W. Balke (bass), William (Wilhelm) Bucheister (viola), H. Luhde (cello), Charles Bartels (bass), William (Wilhelm Heinrich) Schultze (violin), Carl Bergmann (conductor and cello), W. Brandt (violin), C. Stein (violin), Theodore Thomas (violin), Carl Sentz (violin), W. Meier (oboe), Christoph Plagemann (horn), Henry L. Albrecht (viola), Henry (Heinrich) Ahner (trumpet), M. Moritz (trumpet), H. Küstenmacher (horn).
After the original Germania Musical Association Orchestra disbanded, due to lack of finances, in 1856, a local Philadelphia orchestra was organized and again adopted the Germania Orchestra name 72. In the 1884 book by William Mactier, Sketch of the Musical Fund Society of Philadelphia 77, this creation is described:
"...Carl Sentz was the director of the Germania Orchestra, begun in 1856, incorporated in 1860 and disbanded in 1895. About one half its members continued playing in the Henry Thunder Orchestra, all of which was incorporated into the Philadelphia Orchestra. Sentz came to this country as a drummer with the Steiermarkisches Orchestra..." 72. [note: The last sentence may be incorrect; Carl Sentz seems not to have arrived with the Steyermark Orchestra, which did tour the U.S. beginning in 1846 75, but rather to have arrived with the 24 musicians who sailed to New York City in September, 1848, and who formed the Germania Orchestra 74.]
The Germania Orchestra of Philadelphia continued active in the 1880s. During this period, there were other orchestras around the country which adopted the 'Germania Orchestra' name, but, other than Boston, the only group having direct membership from the original 1848 Germania Musical Association Orchestra, with the musicians who sailed from Europe in 1848 was the orchestra based in Philadelphia.
To read more about this interesting, pioneering group of musicians in the United States orchestra development, please click on this link to The Germania Orchestra.
Principal Musicians of the Philadelphia Orchestra
Titles of Musicians: Today, except for the Concertmaster (sometimes called the 'Leader' in Europe), the usual title for the first or leading instrument of an orchestral section is 'Principal', as in 'Principal Flute'. However, in earlier years and in some orchestra sections, the first-chair musician may have been referred to as 'Solo', or 'First'. For example, the Philadelphia Orchestra used the title of 'Solo Trumpet' until 1986 when Frank Kaderabek first was given the title of 'Principal Trumpet' 257.
In the profiles below, for consistency and clarity, I usually use the title 'Principal', even if the title was not yet used at that time.
Charles Dutoit and the Philadelphia Orchestra in Shanghai, May 2010
Concertmasters of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1
As one would expect, the Philadelphia Orchestra has had a succession of great and gifted violists as Concertmaster over the last 100+ years. Fritz Scheel, the first conductor of the Philadelphia Orchestra was himself previously a Concertmaster2. He seems to have been demanding, having gone through five Concertmasters in six seasons. However, the later careers of the first four Concertmasters, seeming to lack later distinction, seems to verify that they were not among the leading violinists of their generation.
Then, in 1904 Scheel appointed Michael Svedrofsky, a distinguished figure. And further, two years later in the 1906-1907 season, Scheel engaged Thaddeus Rich as Concertmaster. This was most successful, Rich remaining Concertmaster for the next twenty seasons, under Fritz Scheel, Carl Pohlig, and Leopold Stokowski.
However, during his 29 years with the Philadelphia Orchestra, Leopold Stokowski did not have a felicitous relationship with his lead violists. As Anne Mischakoff Heiles says in her great book America's Concertmasters 2, "...Probably no conductor made less use of his Concertmasters or did more to undermine their authority than Stokowski..." The story of the Philadelphia Orchestra's Concertmasters and their relationship with Stokowski suggests that Stokowski would tolerate no performing star other than himself. Both Thaddeus Rich, and the brilliant Mischa Mischakoff (father of Anne Mischakoff Heiles) are examples of this. In March 1929, Mischa Mischakoff left the Philadelphia Orchestra follow a disagreement with Stokowski (see Mischakoff and Dubinsky Quit the Philadelphia Orchestra). After Mischakoff resigned from the orchestra, Stokowski took the unusual step of not appointing a new Concertmaster. Instead, he decided to have all the first violins rotate alphabetically through the first chair.4
Consequently, there was no Concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra from 1929 until 1935, when Eugene Ormandy took over and selected Alexander Hilsberg to be Concertmaster, a post Hilsberg held for another 16 seasons.
Looking at this history of Stokowski and Concertmasters, it seems to me similar to Stokowski's antipathy to instrumental soloists who perhaps might steal the spotlight from Stokowski's own contribution. You can read about this Stokowski's relationship with soloist, including the great such as Serge Rachmaninoff and Jascha Heifetz by clicking on ' Stokowski and Soloists ' in this stokowski.org web site.
Carl Doell (or Döll), the first Concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra was born in Saxony, Germany in 1871. He had studied at the Akademische Hochschule für Musik in Berlin 159. He emigrated to the U.S. in 1899, where he joined the faculty of the Philadelphia Musical Academy 159. Fritz Scheel appointed Carl Doell to join the Philadelphia Orchestra as its first Concertmaster in the 1900-1901 season. After leaving the Orchestra in 1901, Carl Doell became a violin teacher at the Philadelphia Conservatory of Music in 1902. In 1904, Doell married Ottilie Collins, when she was 19, and he was 34. Doell was later a musician and teacher in Springfield Township, Pennsylvania (a suburb of Philadelphia), living with Ottilie and his father-in-law. By 1920, Carl Doell, Ottille and two sons had moved to Atlantic City, New Jersey, a seaside resort town where Carl was a violinist in a theater orchestra (most likely for silent films, a large employer of musicians in that era).
Elkan Kosman was a Dutch violinist born in Rotterdam in about 1871, where, like his Principal viola colleague Jan Koert he studied violin. In the 1890s in England, Elkan Kosman built a career as a violin soloist. Kosman also toured in France, Belgium and the Netherlands prior to coming to the U.S. in 1901. In March, 1894, Elkan Kosman received warm reviews in Manchester, England as a violin soloist with the Hallé Orchestra under Sir Charles Hallé: "...M. Elkan Kosman, the frequency of whose appearances in London has hitherto not been in proportion to his merit, was heard to signal advantage in Mendelssohn's violin concerto, which he played with the utmost refinement and dexterity. Later on in the afternoon he gave an excellent rendering of Saint-Saens's charming Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso..." 122. Kosman continued to play provincial concerts in the UK in 1894 through 1899, in lesser venues, but does not seem to have reached the first level of concert bookings during this period 123. At this time, Kosman seems to have lived in Lanarkshire, Scotland. Elkan Kosman was Concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the second season, 1901-1902. He also organized the Kosman String Quartet: Elkan Kosman first, Edwin Brill second, Howard Rattay viola, and Rudolph Hennig cello. Elkan Kosman played a 1779 Guadagnini violin. Elkan Kosman was one of five Concertmasters which Fritz Scheel went through prior to hiring the great Thaddeus Rich. Kosman was not rehired in 1902, and after leaving the Philadelphia Orchestra, he had a solo career for a time in New York. He also played in chamber music groups. In the next decade, Kosman accompanied singers and performed in salon groups in New York City. His reviews in New York as a soloist were mixed 62, and he did not succeed in breaking into the highly competitive areana as successful solo virtuoso. Elkan Kosman seems to have returned to Europe before World War 1.
Poor quality newspaper photo of John Marquardt, 1914
John (or Johann) Marquardt was born in Esselbrugge, Germany (near Hannover) October 16, 1859. He studied violin at the Akademische Hochschule für Musik in Berlin with Émile Sauret (1852-1920) in the late 1870s 124. John Marquardt came to the U.S. in May, 1886 to play violin in the Boston Symphony Orchestra in the 1886-1887 season, where he remained until 1889. In 1889, Marquardt joined A. Reinhardt, Julius Hermann, and Charles Heydler in the Philharmonic String Quartet, based in Cleveland 32. He was a first violin of the Theodore Thomas Orchestra in Chicago in the 1892-1893 season. He moved to New York City in 1893, where he became first violin at the Philharmonic Club, a chamber music ensemble. In 1895, he moved to San Francisco where he lived much of the time over the next ten years. It may be that Marquardt met Fritz Scheel at that time, when Scheel was organizing orchestral concerts in San Francisco. Marquardt concertized in California with his harpist wife, Alexandra Breitschuch-Marquardt during the next decade. In San Francisco, he taught violin from 1900-1902. He also was solo violin at San Francisco's Tivoli Opera House 33. John Marquardt joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as Concertmaster for the 1902-1903 season, with Hugo Olk as Assistant Concertmaster150. After one season with the Philadelphia Orchestra, John Marquardt then returned to San Francisco in about 1904, where he remained until moving back to New York City in 1910. In 1914, Marquardt was the conductor of a theater orchestra in Salt Lake City. Beginning in about 1916, Marquardt lived in New York City and played in chamber work concerts, and at Venice Beach, Long Island, a popular location for summer concerts. In 1895 and in 1912, Marquardt toured Australia and Hawaii with his wife Alexandra. He also taught briefly at the Cleveland Conservatory of Music 31. By 1920, he relocated to the Los Angeles area where he lived in Pasadena teaching violin at least until the late 1930s.
Hugo Olk was born in Germany in 1868, and, like his Concertmaster predecessor John Marquardt studied at the Berlin Akademische Hochschule für Musik. Among other teachers, Olk studied with the great Joseph Joachim (1831-1907). Hugo Olk played in the 1880s with the newly formed Helsinki Orchestra Association conducted by the later famous conductor and friend of Sibelius Robert Kajanus (1856-1933). Hugo Olk also played in the Kroll Opera in Berlin 149. Olk was later Concertmaster of the Kiev Symphony Orchestra 36 in the Ukraine. Olk relocated to the U.S. in 1892. Hugo Olk played in the Ann Arbor May Festival in 1899 as part of the Summer orchestra, and in the Boston Festival Orchestra, another summer orchestra organized by Boston musicians Emil Mollenhauer (1855-1927) and George W. Stewart (1851-1940). Hugo Olk joined the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1902-1903 season as Assistant Concertmaster 150, sitting at the first stand with Concertmaster John Marquardt. In the next season, 1903-1904, Hugo's older brother Gustav Olk (1862- ) joined the Philadelphia Orchestra viola section, and Hugo Olk became the fourth Concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra. The next season, 1904-1905, Hugo Olk, along with Gustav Olk went to the Cincinnati Symphony under Frank Van der Stucken (1858-1929), with Hugo as Concertmaster for two seasons, 1904-1906. Continuing his peripatetic career, Hugo Olk was in the first violin section of the Chicago Symphony in 1906-1907. The Chicago Symphony records also show Olk as a Concertmaster in 1908 (not 1907-1908 or 1908-1909), although this does not seem to match with Olk's career in St. Louis, nor with the fact that Leopold Kramer was the Chicago Concertmaster from 1897-1909. Perhaps Olk was briefly Associate Concertmaster to Kramer in 1908, similar to what he was with John Marquardt in Philadelphia in the 1902-1903 season. Then during 1907-1917, Hugo Olk served as Concertmaster of the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra, under Max Zach (1864-1921). Olk was succeeded as Concertmaster of the St. Louis Symphony in 1917 by Michel Gusikoff. However, Hugo Olk remained with the St. Louis Symphony as first viola. Subsequently, Hugo Olk was a violin teacher in Saint Louis into the 1920s, and it is said that he continued to have a passion for chess. Hugo Olk had a rich and varied career, and was a violinist in a striking number of different symphony orchestras. Hugo Olk died sometime after 1930, probably still living in St. Louis.
Michael Svedrofsky was born in Russia December 14, 1873. Svedrofsky studied at the Saint Petersburg Imperial Conservatory 151. He came to the U.S. in 1902 and became Concertmaster of the Russian Symphony Orchestra of New York for the 1903-1904 season. Beginning with the 1904-1905 season, Svedrofsky became Concertmaster of the Philadelphia for two seasons, 1904-1906. After the Philadelphia Orchestra, Svedrofsky was third Concertmaster (third chair) at the Metropolitan Opera in New York 1911-1922 and second Concertmaster 1923-1930. Svedrofsky became a U.S. citizen in 1919. Michael Svedrofsky also played in chamber music ensembles in the 1900s and 1910s in New York. Svedrofsky died in August, 1936, age 62.
Thaddeus Rich in spring, 1913 in Leopold Stokowski's first season with the Philadelphia Orchestra
Thaddeus Rich was born in Indianapolis on March 21, 1885. In 1896, he entered the Leipzig Conservatory, and upon graduation, joined the Gewandhaus Orchestra in 1900, age only 16. He moved to Berlin in 1902 and studied with Joachim, and also became Concertmaster at the Opera des Westens at age 19 132. Rich returned to the U.S. in 1905 and joined the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1906-1907 season. He was not only Concertmaster, but starting in the 1920s was an assistant conductor of the Philadelphia Orchestra. Thaddeus Rich was also founder of the Rich Quartet: Thaddeus Rich first, Harry Aleinikoff second, Romain Verney viola and Hans Kindler cello. Thaddeus Rich left the Philadelphia Orchestra at the end of the 1925-1926 season after a falling out with Stokowski. He then became curator of the instrument collection of Rodman Wanamaker. In the 1930s and 1940s he taught at Temple University, and was Dean of Music for a time. He also conducted a WPA Orchestra in Philadelphia as part of the New Deal program 131. He died in April 1969 in Hartford, Connecticut. Thaddeus Rich had a reasonably full career after leaving the Philadelphia Orchestra at age 41, but did not again reach the heights that his career in Europe, and then his twenty years with the Philadelphia Orchestra would suggest would be his future after the Philadelphia Orchestra.
Michel Gusikoff in about 1920
Mishel, or Michel Gusikoff was born in May 15, 1893 in New York City. His father Morris emigrated from Russia in 1891 and sons Michel, Solomon and Benjamin all became musicians. Michel was a violin student of Franz Kneisel who was Concertmaster of the Boston Symphony Orchestra from 1885-1903 under Gericke, Nikisch and Paur. In 1915, Michel Gusikoff became Concertmaster of the Russian Symphony in New York. He left New York in 1917 to become the Concertmaster of the St. Louis Symphony under Max Zach (1864-1921). Gusikoff remained in St. Louis until the end of the 1925-1926 season. Becoming Concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra for the 1926-1927 season, he joined his brother Benjamin "Benji" (1900-1956), and also Charles Gusikoff Principal trombone (1897-1966) and Principal cello Isadore Gusikoff (1901-1962) who were also Orchestra musicians. Michel and Benji Gusikoff may be brothers of Charles and Isadore Gusikoff, but I have not verified this. Arriving in Philadelphia in 1926, Mishel Gusikoff was the first of a series of brief-service Concertmasters. After serving in Philadelphia in 1926-1927, he seemed not to find favor with Stokowski. Michel Gusikoff then assumed the Concertmaster position in the New York Symphony for the 1927-1928. This was the position vacated by Mischa Mischakoff, who became the Philadelphia Concertmaster succeeding Gusikoff 9. Gusikoff later became a successful session musician in New York. Mishel Gusikoff died in New York City on July 10, 1978. Incidentally, Saul Caston's mother was also a Gusikoff, and Milan Yancich (1921- ) was Gusikoff's wife's nephew 139.
Mischa Mischakoff circa 1926
[Note; the information in this mini-biography is sourced from the endlessly fascinating and highly readable biography Mischa Mischakoff, Journeys of a Concertmaster, written by Mischakoff's daughter, Anne Mischakoff Heiles, who is also a violist and well-known university teacher. 90]
Mischa Mischakoff, perhaps the greatest Concertmaster of the Twentieth Century, was born Mischa Isaakevich Fischberg in Proskurov, Ukraine (then part of Russia) on April 16,1895. so, Mischakoff was part of the famous musical Fishberg family, and Gusikoff family (his mother was Rose Gusikoff). Also born in Proskurov, and a Fishberg was Harry Glantz . As a youth, Mischakoff first studied with Konstantin Konstantinovich Gorsky (1859-1924). Entering about age 10, Mischakoff studied in at the Imperial Conservatory in St. Petersburg with Sergei Korguyev (1863-1932), an assistant to Leopold Auer 61. Upon graduation in 1912, Mischakoff was a soloist with the Blüthner Orchestra in Berlin in April, 1913. Then, in the 1913-1914 season, Mischakoff became Concertmaster of the St. Petersburg Philharmonic. In 1917, after Russia withdrew from World War 1, Mischakoff returned to the St. Petersburg, later Leningrad, Philharmonic. Then, in 1920, he joined the Bolshoi Theatre Orchestra, before moving in 1921 to become Concertmaster to the Warsaw Philharmonic. On the last day of September, 1922, Mischakoff arrived in the United States, landing in New York City. It was at this time that, upon the recommendation of his manager, Mischa adopted the name of Mischa Mischakoff. Mischa Mischakoff became solo violin in the New York Stadium concerts. In October, 1924, he became Concertmaster of the New York Symphony. He joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as Concertmaster in 1927. He resigned from the Orchestra in 1929, described in Mischakoff and Dubinsky Quit the Orchestra . Mischakoff then became Concertmaster of the Chicago Symphony. He was Concertmaster of the NBC Symphony under Toscanini. In summers during the Chicago and NBC periods, Mischakoff was Concertmaster of the Chautauqua Symphony Orchestra, a summer orchestra in up-state New York. After the NBC Symphony, Mischakoff, who had a number of choices, including becoming Concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra under Ormandy moved to the Detroit Symphony for financial security. Mischakoff moved to Southfield (suburban Detroit), Michigan where he died on February 1, 1981.
Alexander Hilsberg in 1935
Alexander Hilsberg, was born in Warsaw, Poland on April 24, 1900. He was a prodigy, giving his first recital at age nine 45. Poland at that time was part of Russia, and Hilsberg studied violin with Leopold Auer at the St. Petersburg Conservatory 1911-1912. In the early 1920s, Hilsberg became a missionary in Manchuria, China, where he met his wife Neya 43. He came to the U.S. in December, 1923 and became a U.S. citizen in 1929. Hilsberg joined the first violin section of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1926-1927 season. Hilsberg was active 1932-1934 with the Guarnerius Quartet with his colleagues David Madison, second violin, Samuel Lifschey, viola, and Willem van den Berg, cello. From 1929 until the end of the 1935-1936 season, after confrontations with two Concertmasters, Stokowski had decided not to appoint a new Concertmaster. Then began a period of 6 years when the Orchestra had rotating 'Concertmasters' - musicians from the first violin section who sat in the Concertmaster chair at the first stand. Then, in 1936, Eugene Ormandy appointed Alexander Hilsberg as Concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra, 10 years after Hilsberg joined the Orchestra. Hilsberg also pursued conducting, and became an Associate conductor of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1940s. As well as teaching at the Curtis Institute from 1936, Alexander Hilsberg became conductor of the student orchestra 46. In 1946, at Carnegie Hall, Hilsberg conducted the Philadelphia Orchestra when Eugene Ormandy became ill. He also conducted the Orchestra at Carnegie Hall in 1948 44. Hilsberg guest conducted other orchestras in the 1940s such as the Minneapolis Symphony. In the late 1940s, Hilsberg became conductor of the semi-professional Reading (Pennsylvania) Orchestra. In 1951, Hilsberg also conducted the NBC Symphony. Hilsberg left the Philadelphia Orchestra at the end of the 1950-1951 season, to pursue his conducting career. In May, 1952 became conductor of the New Orleans Symphony.7 It is interesting that Hilsberg appointed two future Philadelphia Orchestra Concertmasters to the New Orleans Symphony. In the 1954-1955 season, Anshel Brusilow was Concertmaster, and in 1956-1957, Hilsberg appointed a young Norman Carol as Concertmaster of the New Orleans Symphony 47. Alexander Hilsberg remained Music Director of the New Orleans Symphony until his death, which occurred in Camden, Maine on August 10, 1961.
Jacob Krachmalnick was in born in Krisloff, then part of Russia and now of the Ukraine on March 14, 1922, the year his family emigrated to Saint Louis. He was older brother to Samuel Krachmalnick (1926-2005), who became a well known Broadway musical conductor, and who also conducted at the New York City Opera. Jacob or "Jake" Krachmalnick took up the violin early, and he and his brother Sam both played at concerts at the St. Louis YMHA in the 1930s. Krachmalnick studied at the Curtis Institute 1936-1941, studying with Efrem Zimbalist, among others and graduating in the Class of 1941. At Tanglewood in 1942, he was coached by BSO Concertmaster Richard Burgin. Krachmalnick returned to St. Louis and played in the Symphony for several months, before entering the Air Force during World War 2. In May, 1946, Krachmalnick appeared with the National Orchestral Association (orchestra for students). Beginning in the Autumn of 1946, and until 1951, Krachmalnick was assistant Concertmaster of the Cleveland Orchestra, next to Concertmaster Josef Gingold. The next season, Krachmalnick went to Philadelphia, where he was Philadelphia Concertmaster from 1951-1958. He also performed at the Casals festival in Prades in 1953. Krachmalnick suddenly left the Philadelphia Orchestra before the end of the 1957-1958 season, after a series of disagreements with Ormandy. David Madison, the long-time Assistant Concertmaster took over for the remainder of the 1957-1958 season. Then 1958-1960, Jacob Krachmalnick became Concertmaster of the Concertgebouw Orchestra of Amsterdam under Eduard van Beinum. After van Beinum died, Krachmalnick remained at the Concertgebouw two more seasons, and then moved back to the U.S. On his return to the U.S., Krachmalnick again become assistant Concertmaster of the Cleveland Orchestra 1960-1961 (this time next to Rafael Druian, Concertmaster) under George Szell. Krachmalnick, in the Spring of 1961, was briefly Concertmaster of the New York Philharmonic, replacing John Corigliano, who did not want to fly on the New York Philharmonic's tour of Japan. During this period, Krachmalnick was also a New York sessions musician, making a number of recordings. In about 1963, Jacob Krachmalnick was briefly Concertmaster of the Dallas Symphony under Donald Johanos. Jacob Krachmalnick then moved to California and became Concertmaster of the San Francisco Symphony from 1964 to 1970 under Josef Krips. In 1976, he became Concertmaster of the San Francisco Opera. Often, particularly in off-season from 1960 to the late 1980s, Krachmalnick did session recordings in Los Angeles, Hollywood and San Francisco. In the late 1970s, he taught at UCLA, and in the 1980s, Krachmalnick taught at the University of Michigan and Indiana University. Krachmalnick had a full, rich violin tone, and soloed with orchestras more often than many other Concertmasters. Jake Krachmalnick was said by his colleagues to be a difficult leader of the violins, given to harsh and sarcastic criticism of the first and second violins. Krachmalnick also often had stormy relationships with each orchestra in which he played. He died in Marin County (north of San Francisco) California on August 31, 2001.
Brusilow, standing, between Ormandy (hidden left) and Shostakovich (with cigarette) at a 1960 Philadelphia Orchestra recording session
Anshel Brusilow was born Anshel Brusilovsky in Philadelphia on August 14, 1928. In 1939, Brusilow, age only 11, entered the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia. Brusilow then then entered the Philadelphia Musical Academy, studying under Jani Szanto. After graduation in 1947, Brusilow was a first place winner at the Jacques Thibaud-Marguerite Long Violin Competition. Brusilow then became Concertmaster of the New Orleans Symphony Orchestra under Alexander Hilsberg during the 1954-1955 season. Brusilow then moved to become associate Concertmaster of the Cleveland Orchestra for four seasons, 1955-1959 under George Szell. Ansel Brusilow then moved to Philadelphia as Concertmaster beginning in the 1959-1960 season. In 1961, Brusilow also founded the Chamber Symphony of Philadelphia, which continued until 1965. As a result of a contract dispute, which would have prevented him form continuing with his Chamber Symphony of Philadelphia. Brusilow left the Philadelphia Orchestra at the end of the 1965-1966 season. Brusilow wished to pursue his conducting career. In the 1970-1971 season, Brusilow became conductor of the Dallas Symphony Orchestra, where he remained three seasons. Anshel Brusilow also taught for more than thirty years at Texas Universities. He taught 1973-1982 at the University of North Texas. 1982-1989 Brusilow taught at Southern Methodist University in Dallas. He returned to the University of North Texas 1989-2008, when he retired. Beginning in 1992, Brusilow became Music Director of the Richardson Symphony Orchestra in a suburb of Dallas.
Norman Carol was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in July, 1928 (within a few weeks, and a few miles of his predecessor, Anshel Brusilow) of Ukrainian parents, Max and Anna. Carol grew up in the West Oak Lane section of Northwest Philadelphia. He began playing the violin at six and debuted as a soloist with the local WPA Symphony at nine. In 1941, Carol was admitted to the Curtis Institute of Music, where he studied with Efrem Zimbalist, William Primrose, and others. Norman Carol was chosen to attend Tanglewood during the summers of 1946 and 1947. From this Tanglewood exposure, in 1947 Serge Koussevitzky offered, and Carol turned down an invitation to join the Boston Symphony, because he still sought a solo violin career. In April, 1949, Carol had a triumphal New York solo debut at Town Hall in April, 1949. Then from 1949-1952 Norman Carol did join the first violin section of the Boston Symphony, on the renewed invitation of Koussevitzky. Norman Carol served the last two seasons of Serge Koussevitzky's tenure, and the first season of the new Music Director, Charles Munch. In 1952, Norman Carol left Boston to pursue a solo violin career and made his debut in Town Hall in New York City. In 1953, Carol made his first appearance as guest soloist with the Philadelphia Orchestra. However, his career as a solo violinist was interrupted when was drafted, due to the Korean War. He spent the war in San Francisco, where he met his wife, Elinor Carol. Now having a family, Norman Carol began reflecting on whether a solo violin career was the right path for him. In the 1956-1957 season, Norman Carol decided to accept the position of Concertmaster of the New Orleans Symphony. He was appointed by Alexander Hilsberg, previous Philadelphia Concertmaster, who was conductor of the New Orleans Symphony 1952-1961. Carol stayed in New Orleans 1956-1959. In 1959, Carol joined the Minneapolis Symphony, selected by Antol Dorati, who left the Orchestra before the new season started. Carol then was Concertmaster in Minneapolis under then new Music Director Stanislaw Skrowaczewski. Carol had intended to stay in Minneapolis. However, in 1965, the contract dispute between the Philadelphia Orchestra and Concertmaster Anshel Brusilow occurred, and after Brusilow resigned, Carol auditioned for the opening. Norman Carol was selected by Eugene Ormandy as twelfth Concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra, beginning with the 1966-1967 season. However, the Philadelphia Orchestra 1966-1967 season began with a nine-week strike over benefits. Carol finally made his solo debut with the Orchestra the day after Christmas, 1966 in the Barber Violin Concerto. Carol remained as Philadelphia Concertmaster for 28 seasons.
During this tenure, Normal Carol was an admirer and friend with Riccardo Muti, who became Music Director in 1980. During the early 1990s, Norman Carol experienced intense shoulder pain and underwent surgery several times, unknown to his colleagues. In a 1994 interview, he said "...I played in pain for three years. I saw some doctors, I had a couple of surgeries, but not all surgery is successful. I finally reached the point where I couldn't handle it anymore..." 153. Carol then announced in August, 1993 his retirement from the Philadelphia Orchestra for the end of the 1993-1994 season. Unfortunately, Carol had to cancel his solo farewell of the Barber Violin Concerto. Carol was a friendly, yet private person, his wife Elinor being the more extroverted. Norman Carol was widely respected for his excellent as a concerto soloist with the orchestra, a role he performed hundereds of times. I recall in particular a blazing performance of the Nielsen Violin Concerto with Ormandy in about 1971. After retirement, Norman Carol continued teaching, including at the Curtis Institute.
Erez Ofer was born in Israel in 1959 50. He studied with famous violin teacher Ilona Feher (1901-1988). In 1971, as the result of an Israel Broadcasting competition, Ofer performed with Isaac Stern and the Israel Philharmonic. Ofer also studied with Josef Gingold, former Cleveland Orchestra Concertmaster, at Indiana University in the late 1970s. In the early 1980s, Ofer performed his Israel military service for 3 years. Then, Ofer studied in Germany at the Freiburg Musikhochschule with Nicholas Chumachenco. In 1989, Ofer won the fourth prize medal at the Queen Elisabeth competition in Belgium 48. In 1990, Offer won the gold medal at the Zino Francescatti Competition in France. In 1991, Ofer entered the Juilliard School studying with Dorothy Delay. In 1992, Ofer became Concertmaster of the Bavarian State Radio Orchestra under Lorin Maazel. Ofer remained a the Bavarian Radio under Maazel 1992-1995. In the 1995-1996, Ofer moved to the Philadelphia Orchestra as Concertmaster, replacing Norman Carol. However, the selection did not prove to be a success either for Erez Ofer or for the Philadelphia Orchestra. Ofer was twice refused tenure by the orchestra committee, leading to his resignation. Peter Dobrin of the Philadelphia Inquirer reported: "...Erez Ofer vacated his post six months sooner than expected, with his final appearance on March 3, 1998 the orchestra announced yesterday. The Israeli-born violinist resigned in May, 1997 while on tour with the orchestra in Madrid after the orchestra's tenure committee unanimously refused him tenure..." 225. Phyllis W. Rodríguez-Peralta in her excellent book about the Philadelphia Orchestra: "...Everyone agreed he was a splendid violinist, but unfortunately, unconcerned with the duties of a Concertmaster. He was never given tenure..." 126. Erez Ofer has also been active in chamber music. This has included as first violin in the Amernet String Quartet, based in Cincinnati, which he joined in 1999 49, after leaving the Philadelphia Orchestra. Ofer was with the Amernet Quartet 1999-2003. In 2001, Erez Ofer was appointed Concertmaster of the Berlin Radio Orchestra (Rundfunk-Sinfonieorchester Berlin), under Marek Janowski. Continuing with chamber music, Ofer is a regular guest with the Berlin-based Ensemble Mediterrain.
David Kim was born in Carbondale, Illinois in 1963. He began his violin studies at age 8 with the famous teacher Dorothy DeLay (1917-2002). David Kim then gained admission to the Juilliard School, where he earned both BMus and MMus degrees. In 1986, David Kim won a prize in the VIII International Tchaikovsky Competition, the only American violinist so honored. For two seasons before coming to Philadelphia, David Kim was Associate Concertmaster with the Dallas Symphony under Andrew Litton 1997–1999. David Kim is also active in chamber music, and 1991-1996, he was violin of the Diaz Trio, which toured the US, Latin America, and Europe. In 1999, David Kim won the competition to become the fourteenth Concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra, continuing a distinguished tradition.
Also in 1999, David Kim founded the Kingston Chamber Music Festival at the University of Rhode Island. David Kim has recorded a beautiful album of classic hymns on the Paul Jones Music label The Lord is My Shepherd, well worth listing to. In his masterclasses such as at the Manhattan School of Music and his teaching at the Curtis Institute and other institutions, students have commented on what seems a fusion of the teaching techniques of his famous teacher Dorothy DeLay, with his own pedagogical approach. David Kim has also taught at a wide range of universities and institutions including: the University of Texas Butler School of Music, San Francisco Conservatory, the Juilliard School, the New World Symphony - Miami, Princeton University, Yale University, the Korean National University of Arts, and the Hyogo Performing Arts Center - Japan, and others. David Kim is also active in music festivals, including the MasterWorks Festival - Indiana, and the Pacific Music Festival - Japan. One aspect of note in David Kim's playing is his complete involvement in the music and his evident satisfaction in playing, even after years of concertizing. David Kim also has an interesting website: www.davidkimviolin.com. His concerts, chamber music performances and recordings show that David Kim continues the distinguished tradition of the great Concertmasters of the Philadelphia Orchestra.
Charles Dutoir and David Kim in Shanghai, China in 2012 photo: Chris Lee
Principal Cellos of the Philadelphia Orchestra
Thomas Eakins painting "The Cellist" of Rudolph Hennig practicing in 1896
Rudolph Hennig was born in Bavaria in 1844 and trained at the Leipzig Conservatory. Hennig emigrated to Philadelphia as a boy, and became one of the pioneering classical cellists and teachers in the United States. Hennig was a cellist at the Walnut Street Theater following the Civil War. Rudolph Hennig was also one of the founders of the Philadelphia Musical Academy in 1869, along with Philadelphia musicians Johann F. Himmelsbach, and Wenzel Kopta. The photo below shows Rudolph Hennig and other Philadelphia Musical Academy faculty in 1895 during the celebration of the 25 year Silver Jubilee of the Academy (click on the image to see) after 1930)
Hennig was active not only in teaching, but in concerts and chamber music from 1870 to 1900. Somewhat like Theodore Thomas, Hennig was one of the few American musicians of the second half of the nineteenth century to make a successful career in performance of classical music. He performed in chamber music concerts, particularly with the Beethoven String Quartet (William Stoll Jr., Edwin A. Brill, Richard Schmidt, Rudolph Hennig) and the Mendelssohn Quintet Club of Boston in Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York Boston, and likely other cities during this period. Rudolf Hennig was also a cellist in the also Handel and Haydn Society Orchestra in 1867 and 1868 140). In 1867, Hennig played with the Theodore Thomas orchestra 12 which toured in Philadelphia, Cincinnati, and other cities. From 1872 to 1879, Rudolph Hennig was Principal cello in the Theodore Thomas Orchestra 13. He became the first Principal cello of the Philadelphia Orchestra in November, 1900. Three years after this first season, Rudolph Hennig died in Philadelphia on May 28, 1904, age 60. Hennig has a memorial tablet in his honor in the Philadelphia Academy of Music. Rudolph Hennig is the subject of the famous Thomas Eakins painting of 1896 "The Cellist", shown above.
William Ebann was born in Bremen, Germany January 3, 1873, and came with his family to the U.S. in 1882. He studied at the Cincinnati College of Music and in Berlin in the 1890s. In 1897-1898 following his return from European, he taught cello at the Cincinnati College of Music. He moved to New York in 1898. He became Principal cello of the Philadelphia Orchestra for one season in 1901-1902. Beginning in 1907, he taught at the New York German Conservatory of Music, which by 1908 became the New York College of Music. Prior to World War 1, Ebann played in a number of chamber groups in the northeast U.S.; primarily in New York City. William Ebann continued to teach at the New York College of Music until the 1930s.
1902-1904 Herman Sandby
Herman Sandby in 1906
Alfred Saal was born in Baden-Württemberg, Germany in 1881 and settled in Stuttgart. Saal played in the orchestra of the Schloss Oranienstein in the Rhineland-Palatinate area of Germany 221. In 1904, at the invitation of Fritz Scheel, Saal moved to Philadelphia as Principal cello for two seasons 1904-1906. In 1906, he played a concert in the White House, under Fritz Scheel, where his artistry and "long blond hair" were both noted. In about 1914, Alfred Saal returned to Germany, based in Stuttgart. From about 1921 to 1933, Alfred Saal was a member of the Wendling Quartet consisting of Carl Wendling, first, Hans Michaelis, second, Philipp Neeter, viola, and Alfred Saal, cello 93. Carl Wendling had been Concertmaster of the Boston Symphony for one season, 1907-1908, and was a fellow Stuttgart native. In 1922, the Wendling Quartet toured the United States 94. Richard Aldrich, famous New York Times critic wrote that the Quartet was '...Somewhat Lacking in Color and Contrast in Dynamics...' 95. Alfred Saal also taught in Germany conservatories.
1906-1907 Vladimir Dubinsky
Vladimir Dubinsky in 1937
Vladimir Dubinsky was born in Harkoff, Russia September 10, 1873, and studied at the Moscow Conservatory at the same time as Serge Koussevitzky. He came to the U.S. in 1904. After a single season as Philadelphia Orchestra Principal cello, 1906-1907, he performed in chamber concerts and with singers in New York City and toured with Ernestine Schumann-Heink. He was apparently also cello with the Minneapolis Symphony and the Rochester Philharmonic. During World War 1, he taught at the Kellerman School of Musical Art, a musical high school in Brooklyn. in 1918 and 1919, he appeared as a soloist with the New York Russian Symphony. In the 1930s, he formed the Esardy Trio for radio broadcasts. Dubinsky recorded the Tchaikovsky Nocturne opus19 no 1 and several other works for Edison in the early 1920s, and cello works for Okeh Records. He died in Syracuse, NY January 10, 1938 during a rehearsal of the Syracuse WPA Orchestra.
Letz Quartet 1921: Hans Letz, first, Horace Britt, cello, Edward Kreiner, viola, Edwin Bachmann, second
Horace Britt was born on June 18, 1881, in Antwerp, Belgium. Britt was a child prodigy, and grew up in Paris with his brother Roger (violin) and his sister Gaëtane (harp), under the supervision of their parents Ernst and Maria Britt. When Horace Britt was 6, his mother began his training in solfège. He therefore learned to sight read before he took up an instrument. Horace studied cello, and his brother Roger Britt, the violin. Horace Britt returned to Antwerp to study cello Gustav Faes to prepare him for the Paris Conservatoire entrance examination 30. In November, 1892, at the age of 11, Horace Britt won entrance to the Paris Conservatoire, where he studied with Jules Delsart 1892-1895. Britt won the Conservatoire cello Premier prix in 1895, at age 14, the youngest winner to that time 30 (his record was broken the next year by 13 year old Paul Bazelaire). Horace Britt was cello solo with the Lamoureux Orchestra in 1897, and with the Colonne Orchestra in 1898. Britt made his American debut with the Chicago Symphony (then the Theodore Thomas Orchestra) in 1907. At that time, Britt was Principal cello of the Chicago Symphony 1905-1907. Horace Britt's brother Roger was a first violin with the Philadelphia Orchestra 1918-1924. After Chicago, Horace Britt became Principal cello of the Philadelphia Orchestra for one season, 1907-1908. In the 1910s, Britt became Principal cello of the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra. Horace Britt in the early 1920s was cello with the Hans Letz Quartet: Hans Letz first, Edwin Bachmann second (later of Toscanini's NBC Symphony), Edward Kreiner, viola (later also of Toscanini's NBC Symphony), Horace Britt cello. In 1924-1925 season, Horace Britt became Principal cello with the Minneapolis Symphony, under Henri Verbrugghen. During the 1925-1926 season, Horace Britt taught at the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia. Horace Britt in the late 1920s performed with the Elman String Quartet: Mischa Elman first, Adolf Bak second, Karl Rissland viola, Horace Britt cello. The Elman Quartet also recorded for Victor records in 1927, and in the same year, was the first cellist to be recorded on a sound movie. In the 1940s, Horace Britt formed the Britt Trio. From 1947-1950, Britt was visiting Professor at the University of Texas, Austin, and then joined the faculty. Britt continued at University of Texas 1950-1963, when he retired as Professor Emeritus, Horace Britt died in Austin, Texas on February 3, 1971, age 89.
Herman Sandby in 1920
Herman Sandby was born in Zeeland, Denmark March 21, 1883. He studied for 5 years at the Frankfurt Conservatory with Hugo Becker 14. In 1896 at age 15, Standby played for Queen Victoria at Buckingham Palace. His formal debut was at the Copenhagen Orchestral Society concerts of January, 1900. Sandby toured the U.S. during 1903-1904. He then returned to Europe, where he toured in 1905 with Percy Grainger who had come from Australia to study at the Frankfurt Conservatory in 1904-1905 at the same period as Herman Sandby. Percy Granger was a lifelong friend of Sandby and Sandby's Australian-born wife. Incidentally, Sandby was a lifelong vegetarian, and eventually converted Grainger to a vegetarian diet. Sandby moved to London in 1906, and then relocated to Philadelphia for the 1908-1909 season. The Philadelphia Orchestra was Sandby's only orchestral post, where he stayed five seasons until 1916. Sandby returned to touring in the 1916-1917 season. Several of Sandby's compositions, including a cello concerto were premiered in February, 1916 by Stokowski and the Orchestra. By the 1920s Sandby was back in Europe and lived in Denmark until his death in 1966.
Hans Kindler in the 1920s
Hans Kindler was a Dutch cellist, born in Rotterdam of German parents on January 8, 1892. He performed as a cello soloist with the Berlin Philharmonic at 18 40. He was named first cellist with the Charlottenburg Opera (suburb of Berlin at that time) in 1910. In April 1914, he performed the cello part in the world premiere of Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire. In 1914, while on a tour in the U.S., Hans Kindler decided to remain, World War 1 having just started. Kindler became Principal cello of the Philadelphia Orchestra beginning with the 1916-1917 season. Hans Kindler first recorded for the Victor Talking Machine Company in May, 1916 and between 1916 and 1921 Victor issued approximately 20 sides of Kindler's cello recordings, all acoustic. At this time also, Kindler was a member Rich Quartet, Thaddeus Rich first, Harry Aleinkoff second, Romain Verney viola and Hans Kindler cello. During the 1920s, Kindler was a cello soloist across the United states 40. He also toured England and continental Europe several times in the 1920s, and made one world tour in 1929. Hans Kindler had conducted in Philadelphia in the 1920s, and had been Music Director of the Reading Symphony (Pennsylvania) for 8 seasons. In 1930, Kindler conducted a concert in Washington, D.C. with an orchestra of unemployed musicians. This being a success, Kindler then founded the National Symphony Orchestra in Washington D.C. Its first concert was in November, 1931. The National Symphony was not financially strong, but Kindler kept alive through hiring young musicians at the beginning of their careers and by recording. Hans Kindler continued as Music Director of the National Symphony of Washington almost until his death in 1949. According to Tim Page's history "...the musicians received a salary of $40.00 per week, for three rehearsals and one concert, for five months of the year..." He lead the National Symphony on network radio broadcasts beginning in 1937, and in he and the National Symphony began recording for Victor in 1940. Kindler also recorded for the Armed Forces Radio Service during World War 2. Hans Kindler was said to be a difficult person, perhaps like many other conductors, using sarcastic comments, and with consequent regular turnover of National Symphony orchestral personnel. At the end of the 1948-1949 season, Kindler left the National Symphony following a contractual disagreement. Kindler was succeeded at the National Symphony by another cellist, conductor Howard Mitchell, who conducted it for the next 20 years until 1969. Kindler’s death at age only 57 on August 30, 1949 in Watch Hall, Rhode Island was believed to be a suicide.
Michel Penha in about 1920
Michel Penha was born in December, 14 1888 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. He came from a musical family, his father Maurice Penha also being a musician. Penha graduated from the Amsterdam Conservatoire in 1905, at age 16 165. He had studied with Isaac Mossel (1870-1923). Penha also studied with Hugo Becker (1864-1941), perhaps at Dr. Hoch’s Konservatorium in Frankfurt. Michel Penha made his first concert appearance in Amsterdam in 1907 and then toured Europe. He relocated to New York in 1909. From 1909-1918, Michel Penha was active in New York City as part of the Tollefsen Piano Trio 167, led by Carl Tollefsen, at that time first violin of the New York Symphony. Michel Penha also formed the Penha Trio, based in New York City. Penha also performed chamber music recitals in New York. In 1915-1916, Penha toured South America with Chilean composer and pianist Alberto Guerrero (1886-1959) including in Bolivia, Peru, Panama, Costa Rica, and Cuba. In the 1920-1921 season, Michel Penha was appointed Principal cello of the Philadelphia Orchestra by Leopold Stokowski. Penha was Principal cello for five seasons, beginning in 1920, the same season in which Romain Verney joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as Principal viola. Also like his friend Verney, Michel Penha left the Philadelphia Orchestra at the end of the 1924-1925 season to relocate to San Francisco. Michel Penha become Principal cello of the San Francisco Symphony appointed by Alfred Hertz in the 1925-1926 season. In the late 1920s, Penha and Verney were together members of two string quartets, chamber music groups forming an important part of Penha's career. These were the California String Quartet: Robert Pollack first, William Wolski second, Romain Verney viola, and Michel Penha cello, which continued into the 1940s. The other was the Abas String Quartet, with Nathan Abas first, Hubert Sorenson (1910-1971) second, Abraham Weiss viola and (for at least part of the time) Michel Penha cello. In 1938, Michel Penha was a member of the San Francisco String Quartet, founded by SFS Concertmaster Naoum Blinder: Naoum Blinder first, William Wolski second, Romain Verney viola, and Michel Penha cello. Penha in 1930 relocated to Portland, Oregon for a time, although still active in the San Francisco area. In Oregon, he played in the Neah–Kah–Nie String Quartet: Susie Fennell Pipes first, Hubert Sorenson second, Alexander Vdovin viola and Michel Penha cello. In 1951 in California, Penha joined the Roussel Trio of Doriot Anthony (later Dwyer) flute, Harry Rumpler viola, and Michel Penha cello, based in Los Angeles. Penha was also active as a Hollywood studio musician at the MGM Studios166. Michel Penha seems never to have married, and died in Los Angeles in February 10, 1982, age 93.
Hanns Pick at the University of Michigan School of Music
Hanns Pick was born in St. Gallen, Switzerland near the intersection with the German and Austrian boarders on September 27, 1883. Hanns Pick studied at the conservatory in Karlsruhe, Germany, about 90 km from his home in St. Gallen. Hanns Pick came to the US in 1923, and was appointed Principal cello of the Philadelphia Orchestra by Leopold Stokowski upon the departure of Michel Penha. Hanns Pick played with the Philadlephia Orchestra for one season 1925-1926. After leaving Philadelphia, Hans Pick moved to New York City and became a US citizen. Pick then taught at the University of Michigan, beginning in 1929 and at least until 1949. At the University of Michigan, as well being head of the cello department, Pick was active as a conductor. Hanns Pick died November 9, 1957 in San Diego, California.
Van den Berg as a conductor in 1939
Willem van den Burg was born in the Hague, Netherlands in 1901. Van den Burg studied at the Hague Conservatory, where he won the Foch medal 98. In the early 1920s, Van den Burg studied briefly with Pablo Casals at L'École normale supérieure in Paris 100. He came to the US in 1924. In the 1925-1926 season, Willem van den Berg joined the San Francisco Symphony under Alfred Hertz as Assistant Principal cello sitting next to Principal cello Michel Penha.
The next season, Willem van den Berg moved to the Philadelphia Orchestra, selected by Leopold Stokowski to become Principal cello, replacing Hanns Pick who lasted with Stokowski only one season. Willem van den Berg was Principal cello of the Philadelphia Orchestra for nine seasons, 1926-1935. Van den Berg also branched into conducting. He conducted the Philadelphia Orchestra at Robin Hood Dell (summer concerts in Philadelphia) in the 1930s 99. Also in Philadelphia in the early 1930s, Willem Van den Berg with Alexander Hilsberg, David Madison and Samuel Lifschey, all of the Philadelphia Orchestra, formed the Guarnerius Quartet in the 1930s (not the same as the famous Guarneri Quartet formed by Arnold Steinhardt in 1964). In the 1935-1936 season, Van den Berg was hired by Pierre Monteux to return as Principal cello of the newly reconstituted San Francisco Symphony Orchestra and also as Assistant Conductor. Van den Burg had appeared as a cello soloist with Monteux in Philadelphia and Amsterdam 101. Van den Burg had an on-again off-again relationship with the Francisco Symphony cello section as he pursued his conducting. He was Principal cello of the San Francisco Symphony 1935-1938 and 1940-1941, with Boris Blinder and Willem Dehé replacing him in the Principal cello chair for the two intervening seasons.. Van den Burg also conducted local amateur orchestras such as in Sacramento, and the WPA orchestra of San Francisco Bay 96. In 1942, Willem van den Burg joined the faculty of Mills College in Berkley, California 97 where Darius Milhaud also taught. From 1950 to about 1954, Willem van den Burg was later Principal cello and assistant conductor of the Los Angeles Philharmonic under Alfred Wallenstein. Willem van den Burg arranged cello training pieces entitled 67 Etudes for the Cello on the Beethoven Quartets which are still used today for cello instruction. In the 1950s, Willem van den Burg was part of the American Chamber Players along with Ingolf Dahl, Milton Thomas and his wife Dorothy Wade. In the 1960s, van den Burg taught at the University of California, Santa Cruz, where he also was part of the Cowell Trio, made up of faculty members Julia Zaustinsky, violin, Willem van den Burg, cello, and Bella S. Zilagi, piano. He also played cello in Hollywood studios in the 1960s. Willem van den Burg died in California in 1992 after a rich and varied career.
1935-1936 William A. Schmidt
Isadore Gusikoff was born in New York City December 30, 1901, into the musically prolific Gusikoff family. He may have been brother of the other Philadelphia Orchestra Gussikoffs: Principal violin Mishel Gusikoff, cellist Benjamin "Benji" Gusikoff, and Principal trombone Charles Gusikoff. Isadore was cellist in the Philadelphia Orchestra for nearly eighteen seasons 1921-1939. In the 1936-1937 season, Isadore Gusikoff was appointed Principal cello. However, Isadore in the later 1930s after the departure of Leopold Stokowski did not get along with Eugene Ormandy. Ormandy finally dismissed Gusikoff in February, 1939, prior to the conclusion of the 1938-1939 season. This account was given by Time Magazine: "...Ormandy had fired him...because Gusikoff 'made him nervous.' Cellist Gusikoff promptly sued for the rest of his season pay, proudly admitted that he had conducted a 'silence strike' while sitting in the orchestra, accused Conductor Ormandy of lacking 'poetry, imagination, subtlety and humor.'" 157 (note: This Time magazine report caused a flurry of rebutting letters, including from the orchestra musicians.) Isadore Gusikoff then joined the cello section of Toscanini's NBC Symphony, beginning in 1938. In the summer of 1940, Isadore Gusikoff also joined Leopold Stokowski's 1940 All-America Youth Orchestra tour of South America with Sol_Schoenbach, Saul_Caston, Mason Jones, Samuel Mayes, Anton Torello, and others. Isadore Gusikoff died in Philadelphia in October, 1962.
William A. Schmidt was born in Philadelphia in March 1883 into a musical family to German-born parents. His father, Gustav Carl Schmidt (1850-after 1910) was also a cellist and taught at the Philadelphia Musical Academy in the 1880s and 1890s, and William's older brothers Gustav and Emil, and sister Rose all became musicians. Brother Emil Fredrick Schmidt (1877- ) played violin and viola with the Philadelphia Orchestra 1900-1901, 1903-1904, and 1908-1923. William Schmidt may have studied at the University of Pennsylvania, as did his brother Emil. William Schmidt was again briefly what we would call today Acting Principal cello of the Philadelphia Orchestra February through May, 1939 at the end of the 1938-1939 season following the dismissal of Isadore Gusikoff from his Principal cello position by Music Director Eugene Ormandy. William Schmidt was a long-serving cellist of the Philadelphia Orchestra, serving under each of the fist four Music Directors of the Philadelphia Orchestra, Fritz Scheel, Karl Pohlig, Leopold Stokowski, and Ormandy himself. He served for 34 seasons: 1903-1904, 1911-1912, and 1914-1946. As an added note, William A. Schmidt does not seem to be closely related to Richard Schmidt, first Principal viola of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1900-1901.
Benar Heifetz in the 1940s
Benar Heifetz was born 11 December 1899 in Mogilyov, Russia (today in Belarus) which for a small city was prolific in musicians. Modest Altschuler, who founded the Russian Symphony of New York and the song writer Irving Berlin were born in Mogilyov. (He does not seem to have been related to Jascha Heifetz). Benar Heifetz studied, among others, with Julius Klengel (1859-1933), perhaps at the Leipzig Conservatory. From 1927-1939, Benar Heifetz was cello of the Kolisch String Quartet (Rudolf Kolisch, first violin 1896-1978, Felix Khuner, second, Eugene Lehner, viola and Benar Heifetz). Heifetz
Kolisch Quartet, Felix Khuner second, Eugen Lehner viola, Benar Heifetz, cello and Rudolf Kolisch first (right)
also played in some recordings of the Budapest String Quartet in the 1950s. Heifetz joined the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1939 as Principal cello at the beginning of the 1939-1940 season. However, in November, 1939, Eugene Ormandy decided to appoint Samuel Mayes as Co-Principal cello with Benar Heifetz. Heifetz remained Co-Principal cello until the end of the 1942-1943 season, after which he went to the NBC Symphony.
Incidentally, as to Rudolf Kolisch, he was an impressive artist and in some way unique artist. In an accident, his middle finger of his left had was crushed, and the finger tip had to be amputated. Rather than giving up the violin, Kolisch trained himself to become a left-handed violinist (as can be seen in the Kolisch Quartet photograph, above). I do not know of another leading string player to have successfully done that. To hear a prime example of the Benar Heifetz cello tone, listen to the November 27, 1939 recording of Saint-Saëns Carnival des animaux. In 1943, Heifetz left to join Toscanini's NBC Symphony. At that time, from 1943 until the end of the Toscanini era in 1954, the NBC Symphony featured a first Viola stand of Carlton Cooley and Milton Katims (1909-2006) and a first cello stand of Frank Miller and Benar Heifetz (!) Benar Heifetz died in 1974.
Dmitri Kabalevsky with Samuel Mayes (right) in 1964 prior to the U.S. premier of the Kabalevsky Cello Concerto
Samuel Houston Mayes was born in St. Louis, Missouri on August 11, 1917. Samuel Mayes had a genuine American west background: one of his grandfathers was a Cherokee chief, and two Oklahoma counties were named for his forbearers, Rogers County and Mayes County. Mayes began early with cello lessons with Max Steindel (1891-1964), long time Principal cello of the St. Louis Symphony (42 years with the orchestra). Mayes played at age 8 as soloist with the St. Louis Symphony under Rudolph Ganz. Samuel Mayes entered the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia in 1930, where he studied with Felix Salmond (1888-1952). During the 1930s, while at Curtis, Samuel Mayes played frequently in the cello section of the Philadelphia Orchestra under Stokowski and Ormandy. Mayes graduated from Curtis in the Class of 1937, and was already listed in the Philadelphia Orchestra cello section in the 1936-1937 season. During the 1939-1940 season, Samuel Mayes in November, 1939 was elevated by Eugene Ormandy to be Co-Principal with Benar Heifetz, as described above. When Heifetz departed for the NBC Symphony Orchestra in the 1943-1944 season, Samuel Mayes became Principal cello of the Philadelphia Orchestra, and remained Principal in Philadelphia until the end of the 1947-1948 season. Serge Koussevitzky then selected Samuel Mayes as Principal cello of the Boston Symphony beginning with the 1948-1949 season, where Mayes remained for 18 seasons. While in Boston, he married Winifred Schaefer, first woman in a BSO string section. In 1964, Eugene Ormandy convinced Samuel and Winifred Mayes to join the Philadelphia Orchestra as Principal and co-Principal cellists. Samuel Mayes remained with the Philadelphia Orchestra until declining health convinced him to retire at the end of the 1972-1973 season. While in Philadelphia, in 1964, Samuel Mayes gave the American premiere of the Kabalevsky Second Cello Concerto, with Dmitry Kabalevsky (1904-1987) conducting. After Samuel retired, Winifred Mayes remained with the Philadelphia Orchestra four more seasons, departing at the end of 1976-1977. Samuel Mayes, after Philadelphia, briefly taught at the Eastman School of Music. He apparently thought that his health had improved sufficiently for him to take up the position of Principal cello of the Los Angeles Philharmonic under Zubin Mehta 1974-1975. However, this proved not to be sustainable, and Mayes joined the music faculty of the University of Michigan. Samuel Mayes retired in 1984, but occasionally performed with the Aspen Festival Orchestra and the Cincinnati Symphony. Before the Eastman School and the University of Michigan, Samuel Mayes taught at a series of schools, including the New England Conservatory, Boston University and Temple University (in Philadelphia). Unfortunately, Samuel Mayes's heath continued to deteriorate, and following open heart surgery and later surgery for colon cancer 135, he died in Mesa, Arizona on August 24, 1990, age 73.
Paul Olefsky was born in Chicago on January 4, 1926. His father, Maxim, born in Russia, was also an orchestra musician and pianist. Maxim Olefsky (1899-1989) conducted the radio orchestras of NBC and ABC in Chicago 141. Paul Olefsky studied at the Curtis Institute with Gregor Piatigorsky (1903-1976). Olefsky graduated from Curtis in the Class of 1947. In 1948, at age 22, Paul Olefsky became the youngest Principal cellist in the history of the Philadelphia Orchestra up to that time. During the 1950-1951 season, in December, 1950, Paul Olefsky left the Philadelphia Orchestra to play in the US Navy band during the Korean War 144. Following this service, Paul Olefsky became Principal cellist in the newly reorganized Detroit Symphony under Paul Paray. In June 1953 at the Michael Memorial Music Competition in Chicago, cellist Paul Olefsky won first place, with Van Cliburn placing second 142. This was a competition, no longer active, for various instruments, rather than for piano or for strings. By 1954, Paul Olefsky was back in Detroit as Principal cello, serving with Detroit Concertmaster Mischa Mischakoff. In 1956, Paul Olefsky is listed as being 'Principal cello' in the Chicago Symphony roster 143, only for 1956, rather than for 1956-1957, as is usual in the roster listings for each season. Olefsky seems not to have served with the Chicago Symphony for the entire 1956-1957 season, if he did in fact take the Principal chair. By February, 1957, Paul Olefsky is again listed in newspaper reviews as Principal cello of the Detroit Symphony 143.
Paul Olefsky in Detroit 1958
After the Detroit Symphony, Paul Olefsky seems to have left orchestral life. He taught in New York at the Julliard School. During the 1960s and 1970s, Olefsky's performing career as a cellist was primarily devoted to chamber music. At this time, Paul Olefsky was also active in conducting, which he had done previously on several occasions throughout his career. Later, Olefsky became Professor of Music at the University of Texas, Austin, from which he has now retired. In 1989, Paul Olefsky married the cellist Hai Zheng.
Lorne Munroe at Lincoln Center, New York
Lorne Munroe was born in Manitoba, Canada on November 24, 1924. Munroe won the Winnipeg Music Competition Festival at age 10. When 14, Lorne Munroe was taken to London by his sponsor, the Australian composer and pianist Arthur Benjamin (1893-1960), who also taught at the Royal College of Music. In London, Munroe he studied at the Royal College of Music under the famous cello teacher Ivor James (1882-1963). Lorne Munroe then studied at the Curtis Institute in the same class as Paul Olefsky, graduating in 1947. As did Olefsky, Lorne Munroe studied cello with Gregor Piatigorsky. After graduation from Curtis, Monroe went to the Cleveland Orchestra as Principal cello for one season 1949-1950 under George Szell. While with the Cleveland Orchestra, interestingly Lorne Munroe appeared as a soloist with the Philadelphia Orchestra142. Lorne Munroe then played for one season with the Minneapolis Symphony 1950-1951. In December, 1950, Paul Olefsky left the Philadelphia Orchestra as a result of the Korean War to join the US Navy Band. The Principal cello chair of the Philadelphia Orchestra was then open until September of the following season when Lorne Munroe was appointed Principal cello by Eugene Ormandy. Lorne Munroe left the Philadelphia Orchestra at the end of the 1963-1964 season to join the New York Philharmonic under Leonard Bernstein. Lorne Munroe was then for 32 seasons Principal cello with the New York Philharmonic from 1964-1996. In New York, Munroe also taught at Juilliard. At age 72, in February, 1996, Lorne Munroe and his wife Janee retired to their home in Warren, Maine.
William Stokking Jr. was born in Ventnor, New Jersey, near Atlantic City on April 6, 1933. His Dutch-born father, William Stokking Sr. was a professional violinist, playing in theater orchestras who gave his son his first musical instruction. His mother was Swedish-born. Stokking studied with Gregor Piatigorsky at the Curtis Institute, graduating in the Class of 1949. William Stokking joined the cello section of the Cleveland Orchestra under George Szell in the 1958-1959 season, and remained for two seasons until 1960. William Stokking returned to the Cleveland Orchestra as Principal cello in the 1971-1972 in the interim between George Szell's death and the appointment of Lorin Maazel, when Pierre Boulez was Musical Advisor. Stokking remained Principal cello until the end of Lorin Maazel's first season in Cleveland 1972-1973. William Stokking then returned to Philadelphia, appointed Principal cello of the Philadelphia Orchestra under Eugene Ormandy in the 1973-1974 season. William Stokking served as Principal cello in Philadelphia for 33 seasons, retiring at the end of 2002-2003. In the early 2000s, William Stokking, a long-time New Jersey resident was Principal cello of the Princeton Chamber Symphony. William Stokking's wife Nancy is also a cellist, playing freelance and teaching.
photo: Chris Lee, n.d.
Hai-Ye Ni was born in Born in Shanghai, China in 1972. After receiving her first cello lessons from her mother, Ms. Ni entered the Shanghai Conservatory of Music. She then studied at the San Francisco Conservatory with Irene Sharp. Admitted to the Juilliard School, Hai-Ye Ni studied with Joel Krosnick. After Juilliard, Ms. Ni continued her work with the well-known London-based teacher William Pleeth (1916-1999), who was himself a student of Julius Klengel (1859-1933). In 1990, Hai-Ye Ni won First Prize at the Naumburg International Cello Competition in New York City. Following this award, Hai-Ye Ni made her debut at Alice Tully Hall, New York in 1991. In 1996, Hai-Ye Ni won First Prize in a highly competitive International Pualo Cello Competition in Finland. In 1997, Hai-Ye Ni toured 14 US cities to perform Two Poems, the 1998 work for cello and orchestra composed by Bright Sheng (1955- ). In 1999, Hai-Ye Ni won the competition to become Associate Principal cello of the New York Philharmonic. She served in New York for seven seasons, 1999-2006. In 2006, Hai-Ye Ni won the competition to become the seventeenth Principal cello of the Philadelphia Orchestra. She is also active in summer music festivals, including the Marlboro Music Festival - Vermont, the Spoleto Festival - South Carolina, the Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival - New Mexico, the Aspen Music Festival - Colorado, the La Jolla SummerFest - California, the Kuhmo Festival - Finland, and the Pablo Casals Festival - France. Hai-Ye Ni performed the music of Ellen Taaffe Zwilich (1939- ) at the Carnegie Hall Weill Recital Hall in 2004. Hai-Ye Ni's complete mastery of technique means that Hai-Ye Ni can concentrate totally on inspiration of the music.
Hai-Ye Ni with Charles Dutoit in 2008
Principal Violas of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1
Richard Schmidt circa 1896
Richard Schmidt was born in New York City on May 5, 1865 of German parents. His father Adolph and mother Augusta (Schmidt) were both violinists, and both born in Germany in 1835. The Schmidt family moved to Philadelphia by 1880. was From about 1891 to 1900, Richard Schmidt was, along with Rudolph Hennig (the first Principal cello of the Philadelphia Orchestra) part of the Beethoven String Quartet (consisting of William Stoll Jr. first, Edwin A. Brill second, Richard Schmidt viola, Rudolph Hennig cello). Richard Schmidt also taught at the Philadelphia Musical Academy, founded in 1869 by Rudolf Hennig, John Himmelsbach, and others. In 1898, Richard Schmidt also played in the Thunder Orchestra, a Philadelphia orchestra that briefly existed between the demise of the Germania Orchestra of Philadelphia, and the organization of the Philadelphia Orchestra. Richard Schmidt became the first Principal viola of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1900-1901 season. Schmidt left the orchestra after this first season, but remained in Philadelphia as a theater musician, first as violinist and later as a conductor. At this period, theaters were among the most frequent employers of musicians, usually for silent films, and had the important advantage that they offered year-around employment. Schmidt continued this at least until 1930. Although the record of his death has not yet been located, he likely died in Philadelphia after 1936. As an added note, Richard Schmidt does not seem to be closely related to William A. Schmidt , 34 seasons in the cello section of the Philadelphia Orchestra, nor William's brother Emil Schmidt who served seventeen seasons in the Philadelphia Orchestra violin section.
Siegfried Wertheim was born in Germany July 24, 1869. Siegfried Wertheim became the second Principal viola of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1901-1902 season. After one year in Philadelphia, Wertheim relocated to Paris, where he was Principal viola with the Colonne Orchestra about 1902-1904. Then, in 1904, Siegfried Wertheim moved to the London Queen's Hall Orchestra under Henry Wood (after 1911, Sir Henry). Like his successor as Philadelphia Orchestra Principal viola, Emile Férir, Siegfried Wertheim was Principal Viola of the Queen's Hall Orchestra where he served seven seasons 1904-1911 under Sir Henry Wood (1869-1944) 6. Wertheim succeeded the legendary violist Lionel Tertis (1876-1975) in the Queen's Hall Orchestra Principal viola chair. In 1907, Siegfried Wertheim was a founding member of a new string quartet in London, the Hambourg String Quartet, Jan Hambourg first, Maurice Sax second, Siegfried Wertheim viola, Boris Hambourg cello 6. In 1912, Siegfried Wertheim conducted the Orchestra Femina consisting entirely of British women musicians, considered at that time a novelty, played in England and toured the US vaudeville circuit in 1912.
Jan Koert was born in the Netherlands in 1853, and trained in Rotterdam as a violinist and violist. In the early 1880s, Jan Koert became Second Concertmaster of the orchestra in Ostend, Belgium seated at the first stand beside Eugène Ysaÿe (1858-1931), who was Concertmaster. Jan Koert also played in Paris with the Rubinstein Quintet, with the touring Anton Rubinstein (1829-1894), piano and Jan Koert first violin 158. In June, 1889, Jan Koert emigrated to the U.S. He may have briefly played in the Theodore Thomas touring orchestra at that time 158. In 1890, in New York City, he married the Polish soprano Selma Kronold. He was also a soloist with the Boston Symphony in 1890 and 1891. Koert was on the faculty of the National Conservatory of Music in New York in 1892. This was at the time that the conservatory was directed by Antonin Dvorak 1891-1895 during his stay in the US. Koert at that time was part of the Brodsky String Quartet with Adolph Brodsky (then Concertmaster of the New York Symphony) first violin, Jan Koert, second violin. Although the premier of Dvorak's American Quartet opus 96 was performed by the Kneisel Quartet in Boston in 1894, the Brodsky Quarter performed the new quartet in New York City later that year. Jan Koert became Principal viola of the New York Symphony in the 1894-1895 season, and then became third chair violin, and finally Concertmaster from 1895-1898 15. In his book Music is my Faith 29, David Mannes who was second to Koert, and then later Concertmaster himself wrote: "…Jan Koert was very kind and helpful. As Concertmaster he proved himself an experienced leader of the first violins, though he was never a distinguished player." However, Mannes further wrote that he had great respect for the musicianship and musical knowledge of Jan Koert. Jan Koert joined the violin section of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the first season, 1900-1901. In the second season 1901-1902, he became Second or Associate Concertmaster. Then, for six seasons, Jan Koert was Principal viola of the Philadelphia Orchestra from 1902-1908. Jan Koert died in Atlantic City, New Jersey on February 2, 1911, only age 57 158.
William Diestel with Alfred Lorenz behind him in 1913
William Diestel was born on November 27, 1869 in was is now the state of Thuringia, in central Germany. He emigrated to the U.S., going to Chicago in 1892. William Diestel followed his older brother Herman who had emigrated the previous year in 1891. Hermann Diestel was a cellist, and he joined the Chicago Orchestra (as it was then called) in its third season 1893-1894. William Diestel joined the Chicago Orchestra two seasons later in 1895-1896. Both William and Hermann Diestel left the Chicago Orchestra at the end of the 1896-1897 season. They both continued to teach 1895-1901 at the Spiering Violin School of Chicago (organized by Theodore Spiering 1871-1925) , and Hermann Diestel taught at the Chicago Musical College. After eight seasons absense, William Diestel returned to the Chicago Symphony 1905-1908 now in the viola section. William Diestel then moved to Philadelphia as Principal viola for seven season 1908-1915. After leaving Philadelphia at the end of the 1914-1915 season, William Diestel returned to Chicago, where he
played with the Chicago Grand Opera under the dynamic leadership of Cleofonte Campanini (1860-1919). William Diestel died March 29, 1926 in Chicago at the relatively young age of 56.
Henry J. Michaux was born in Liege, Belgium February 26, 1882 and emigrated to the U.S. in 1913, first to Boston and then Philadelphia. After being Principal viola in the Philadelphia Orchestra from 1915-1917, he remained with the Orchestra viola section until 1940. In 1940, Henry and his wife Jeanne retired to their home in Woodstock, N.Y. Henry Michaux had lived in Woodstock during summers in the New York State Catskills region, where he was active in the Maverick Concerts. There, he was also active in the Maverick String Quartet: Pierre Henrotte first, Leon Barzir second, Henry Michaux viola, and Silvio Lavatelli cello. Starting in 1929, while spending summers in the Catskills, Henry Michaux also taught violin and viola at Ernest Williams's Ithaca Military Band School into the 1930s.
Alfred Lorenz in 1921
Alfred Lorenz was born in Halle, Germany October 10, 1878, and emigrated to the U.S. in 1901. Alfred Lorenz was a long-term viola player in the Philadelphia Orchestra from 1901 to 1943. He was appointed Principal viola during the 1917-1918 season. From about 1914 to 1921, with fellow Philadelphia Orchestra musicians Emil Schmidt (violin 1900-1923) and his brother William Schmidt (cello 1903-1946) and Louis Angeloty (violin 1908-1922), they formed the Schmidt Quartet 5. At the end of his long Philadelphia Orchestra career, Alfred Lorenz was appointed Assistant Concertmaster of the orchestra during the war years 1941-1943.
Emile Férir in 1913
Émile Férir was born July 18, 1873 in Brussels, Belgium. He gained entry to the Conservatoire Royal de Musique - Brussels, winnin his Premier prix in 1891 229. He played viola in the Lamoureux Orchestra of Paris in 1892. The next season, Émile Férir went to Glasgow, where he was Principal viola of the Scottish Symphony. From 1897-1903, he was Principal viola at Henry Wood's Queen Hall Orchestra in London 10. While in Britain, he was also active in the Kruse String Quartet: Johann Kruse first, Charles Schilsky second, Emil Férir viola 145. Émile Férir emigrated to the U.S. at the end of his 1902-1903 season in London in September, 1903. Presumably, he had already been contracted by Wilhelm Gericke to become Principal viola of the Boston Symphony. While in Boston, Férir became a US citizen in 1917. Émile Férir was Principal violist of the Boston Symphony Orchestra for fifteen seasons, from 1903-1918. The next season, Leopold Stokowski, who had gone through two Principal violas in three seasons appointed Émile Férir Principal viola of the Philadelphia Orchestra . Unfortunately for Férir, he also lasted only one season, 1918-1919, with the Philadelphia Orchestra. Férir then joined the New York Symphony during the early 1920s. At this time he also joined the Berkshire String Quartet, funded by Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge (1864-1953), consisting (at that time at least) of Hugo Kortschak first, Jacques Gordon second, Emile Férir viola, and Emmeran Stoeber cello. Émile Férir had replaced Clarence Evans in the viola position of the Berkshire Quartet. In the early to mid 1920s, Émile Férir was Principal viola for the Los Angeles Philharmonic, where he joined Sylvain Noack. Emile Férir died in Orange County, California on April 26, 1949.
Samuel Belov in 1936
Samuel Belov was born in what is now Dnepropetrovsk in the Ukraine, then part of Russia on April 4, 1884. Samuel Belov and his brother Joel Belov emigrated to the U.S. in 1906, and settled first in Philadelphia, where he joined the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1908-1909 season in the viola section. Samuel Belov's brother, Joel Belov (1889-1964) was also in the Philadelphia Orchestra violin section 1912-1920. Samuel Belov served twelve seasons in the Philadelphia Orchestra viola section under Karl Pohlig and Leopold Stokowski. In his last season, 1919-1920, Stokowski advanced Samuel Belov to the Principal viola position. The next season, Samuel Below moved to Rochester, New York, where he taught briefly at the Dossenbach-Klingberg Institute in Rochester. The next year, George Eastman, founder of Kodak formed the Eastman School of Music, and certain professors of the Dossenbach-Klingberg Institute were invited to join the Eastman faculty 53. So, from 1921, Samuel Belov helped create both the Eastman Rochester Orchestra, and was also a founding teacher of violin faculty of the new Eastman School of Music 53. Samuel Below served at the Eastman School for twenty eight years, 1921-1949 teaching violin and viola. Later, Samuel Belov also conducted frequently at the Eastman school, which was regularly broadcast during the 1930s. In chamber music, Samuel Belov was also viola in the Kilbourn at the Eastman School 52. The Kilbourn Quartet was personally funded by George Eastman (founder of Eastman Kodak), and was active from 1921-1932, the year of Eastman's death. Later, in 1942, Samuel Belov was joined at the Eastman School by Jacques Gordon, former Concertmaster of the Chicago Symphony. Samuel Belov died in New York in 1954.
Romain Verney in 1906
Romain Verney was born in France in March 20, 1878. He gained entrance to the Paris Conservatoire where he gained his Premier prix in about the 1896 Concour. Following the Conservatoire, Romain Verney played viola in the Concerts Colonne Orchestra. During this time, he was the stand partner of Pierre Monteux; Monteux was Principal viola of the Concerts Colonne 1893-1912. Romain Verney emigrated to the U.S. in 1905. Romain's father Joseph Verney was also a musician, playing in the French Republican Guards and the Panama-Pacific Exposition in 1915. Romain Verney taught at the Institute for Musical Studies (Julliard) from about 1906-1909. In 1910, he was Principal viola of the New York Symphony. He was Principal viola at the Chicago Opera during World War 1. He returned to the New York Symphony as Principal Viola in 1919. Verney joined the Philadelphia Orchestra the same season as Michel Penha, and stayed during the same term. While in Philadelphia, he also was a member of the of the Rich Quartet: Thaddeus Rich first, Harry Aleinikoff second, Romain Verney viola and Hans Kindler cello. Romain Verney was Principal viola in Philadelphia for five seasons from 1920-1925. In 1925, Verney moved to California. He was Principal viola of the San Francisco Symphony succeeding Lajos Fenster under Alfred Hertz 1925-1931, and Co-Principal viola with Jascha Veissi in the 1931-1932 season. Then, during 1932-1934, Verney moved back in the San Francisco viola section, and again after the suspension of the San Francisco Symphony in 1934-1935 season, continued until 1936. In the 1936-1937 season Pierre Monteux advanced his old stand parter to the Associate Principal viola chair of the San Francisco Symphony. Nathan Firestone was at that time Principal viola. Romain Verney remained Associate Principal viola in San Francisco through the 1955-1956 season. He was stand partner with Principal viola Ferenc Molnar 1943-1956. Verney then remained in the viola section for one more season, retiring at the end of 1956-1957 after more than fifty seasons of orchestral service. Roman Verney lived in San Mateo, a San Francisco suburb where he also taught viola at Mills College and also at the Peninsula Conservatory of Music San Mateo, California in 1950s. In the late 1920s and into the 1930s, Verney was also a member of the California String Quartet: Robert Pollack first, William Wolski second, Romain Verney viola, and Verney's old friend Michel Penha cello, and the Abas String Quartet, also with Penha. In 1938, he was a member of a similar group, the San Francisco String Quartet, founded by SFS Concertmaster Naoum Blinder: Naoum Blinder first, William Wolski second, Romain Verney viola, and Michel Penha cello (and with the membership changing in later seasons 155). Romain Verney died in San Mateo, California on June 28, 1967, aged 89 after a full career including a half century of leading orchestral work and teaching of several generations of musicians.
Samuel Lifschey in 1919
Samuel Lifschey was born in New York City on May 6, 1889. He studied violin under Arnold Volpe (1869-1940) in the 1910s. By 1917, Lifschey was a viola player in the New York Symphony under Walter Damrosch. Lifschey also played at the Maverick Festival at Woodstock, New York during the summers in the early 1920s. For two seasons, 1921-1923, Samuel Lifschey was Principal viola of the Cleveland Orchestra. Samuel Lifschey then was appointed Principal viola of the Philadelphia Orchestra by Leopold Stokowski in the 1925-1926 season. Lifschey served as Principal viola in Philadelphia for thirty seasons, 1925-1955. Elias Lifschey, father of Marc Lifschey the oboe Principal of the San Francisco Symphony, was also a viola player. Elias Lifschey played viola in the NBC Symphony under Toscanini. However, the relationship of Elias Lifschey to Samuel Lifschey, although probable, is still subject to research. In 1936, Time Magazine in a breezy article reported "...Samuel Lifschey, leader of the viola section, has been a six-day bicycle racer, a dentist, a pharmacist, an engineer..." 38. Although interesting, the information about Lifschey "being a dentist, a pharmacist, and engineer" is not further elucidated. After nearly thirty seasons as Principal viola, Samuel Lifschey left the Philadelphia Orchestra sometime during the 1954-1955 season, probably in January, 1955, although the reason for his departure was not explained at the time. He was succeeded by Harry Zaratzian of the New York Philharmonic. Samuel Lifschey died in Philadelphia in 1961.
Harry Zaratzian, of Armenian heritage was born in Egypt in 1922. In January, 1923, his family emigrated to the U.S. Zaratzian was Principal viola with the Houston Symphony in about 1950-1951. Zaratzian was viola with the New York Philharmonic beginning in the 1951-1952 season under Dimitri Mitropoulos. When, after nearly thirty seasons as Philadelphia Orchestra Principal viola, Samuel Lifschey left during the 1954-1955 season, Harry Zaratzian of the New York Philharmonic was invited by Eugene Ormandy to join Philadelphia as Principal viola during the 1954-1955 season probably in about January, 1955. Zaratzian continued as Philadelphia Principal viola in the 1955-1956 season. After leaving the Philadelphia Orchestra, Harry Zaratzian became a widely recorded New York-based sessions musician in the 1960s through the 1990s. In about 1963, Harry Zaratzian was briefly a member of the Kroll String Quartet: William Kroll first, William Stone second, Harry Zaratzian viola, Avron Twerdowsky cello 170.
Kroll Quartet with Harry Zaratzian at right
Zaratzian was also in the 1960s sometimes a member of the Composer's Quartet based in New York City 248 playing in particular contemporary music, and also of the Cantilena Chamber Players. Zaratzian also played in the Marlboro Music Festival 1965-1967, and toured with the Marlboro international tour, conducted by Rudolf Serkin in 1965. He taught at the Tanglewood Music Festival during this period 248. In the 1970s, Harry Zaratzian continued his chamber music career with the Piper String Quartet: Paul Gershman first, Secondon Proto second, Harry Zaratzian viola, Barbara Stein-Malow cello. This quartet took its name from the Piper Opera House in Virginia City, Nevada, where it performed summers during the 1970s. Harry Zaratzian died in suburban New York City on 14 July 2013, age 91.
Carlton Cooley circa 1950
Carlton Cooley was born in Milford, New Jersey (west of New York City) on April 15, 1898. Cooley studied at the Philadelphia Musical Academy with Frederick Hahn (formerly of the Boston Symphony) and Camille Zeckwer, and later with the famous violin teacher Percy Goetschius (1853-1943) at the Institute of Musical Art (Juilliard) 42. In the 1919-1920 season, the 21 year old Carlton Cooley joined the viola section of the Philadelphia Orchestra. Cooley then moved to the Cleveland Orchestra, selected by Nikolai Sokoloff to be Principal viola, succeeding Herman Kolodkin in the 1920-1921 season. The next season, Sokoloff moved Cooley to the first stand of the first violins, next to Concertmaster Louis Edlin, as what we would call today Associate Concertmaster. This was for one season. Then, in the 1922-1923 season, Nikolai Sokoloff moved Cooley back to the Principal viola position of the Cleveland Orchestra where he remained under Sokoloff and then Artur Rodzinski until the end of the 1936-1937 season. Cooley left Cleveland to become Principal viola of the NBC Symphony.
Carlton Cooley in an NBC publicity drawing
Cooley would have been hired into the NBC Symphony by Artur Rodzinski, who know Cooley from Cleveland, and selected Carlton Cooley even though he was raiding his own Cleveland Orchestra. Rodzinski, already known as an orchestra-builder had been appointed to organize and prepare the NBC Symphony for Arturo Toscanini. Carlton Cooley remained Principal viola of the NBC from 1937-1954 during all the years of Maestro Toscanini's tenure. Cooley of course participated in the South American tour of the NBC Symphony in the Summer of 1940. After leaving the NBC Symphony upon Toscanini's retirement, Carlton Cooley joined the Philadelphia Orchestra viola section under Ormandy in the 1954-1955 season at the same time as Harry Zaratzian moved from the New York Philharmonic to become Principal viola of the Philadelphia Orchestra. Two seasons later, beginning 1956-1957, Carlton Cooley was appointed Principal viola, succeeding the departing Harry Zaratzian. Carlton Cooley remained with the Philadelphia Orchestra for 9 seasons (plus a tenth, counting 1919-1920), until he reached the mandatory retirement age of 65 in the 1962-1963 season. Cooley is particularly remembered for his recording of Berlioz Harold in Italy under Toscanini, as well as the 1951 Toscanini Enigma Variations and for Cooley's solos in the Richard Strauss Don Quixote under Ormandy, with Lorne Monroe, cello. Carlton Cooley also recorded with Ormandy his own composition: the Aria and Dance for Viola and Orchestra, which Nikolai Sokoloff had also performed in 1926 with the Cleveland Orchestra. Carlton Cooley died in Stockton, New Jersey (about 15 miles from his birth place) in November 1981.
William Schoen was born in Czechoslovakia in 1919, and came with his family to the US as an infant 107. William Schoen studied at the Eastman School of Music, and at the Julliard School. In the summer of 1940, William Schoen played viola in Leopold Stokowski's All American Youth Orchestra tour of Brazil and Argentina. Prior to coming to Philadelphia, William Schoen played in the staff broadcasting orchestras of NBC, ABC and CBS 106. In the 1950s, William Schoen was viola in the Guilet String Quartet: Daniel Guilet (1899-1990) first, Henry Siegl (1911-1997) second, William Schoen, viola, David Soyer (1923-2010) - later of the Guarneri String Quartet, cello). The Guilet Quartet recorded early LPs for Concert Hall records. Beginning in 1954 217, William Schoen also played with the Claremont Quartet: Marc Gottlieb first, Vladimir Weisman second, William Schoen, viola, and Irving Klein cello 232. William Schoen was Principal viola of the Philadelphia Orchestra under Eugene Ormandy for one season, 1963-1964. Schoen also participated in the Marlboro Music Festival in Massachusetts. During his season in Philadelphia, it seems that Eugene Ormandy determined to make a change in the first viola position, and hired Joseph de Pasquale, and at the same time Principal cello Samuel Mayes and his wife Winifred from the Boston Symphony. Following the Philadelphia Orchestra, William Schoen moved to Chicago, where he was Assistant Principal viola of the Chicago Symphony for 32 seasons, 1964-1996. While playing in Chicago, Schoen also was a sessions musician at local recording sessions. His wife, Mona Schoen was a long-time violinist of the Chicago Lyric Opera. William Schoen died after 1997, but I have not yet seen the exact date.
Joseph de Pasquale was born in Philadelphia in December, 1919. His father, Oreste de Pasquale was also a violinist, who gave Joseph his first lessons. Accepted at the Curtis Institute as a violinist, Joseph de Pasquale switched to viola at the suggestion of Max Aronoff of the Curtis String Quartet (1906-1981) and Louis Bailly (1882-1974). At Curtis, de Pasquale studied with Aronoff and Bailly, and later with William Primrose (1904-1982). Joseph de Pasquale graduated from Curtis in the Class of 1942. During World War 2, de Pasquale played in the US Marine Band and Orchestra in Washington DC, and took the train to Philadelphia every two weeks to study with William Primrose. Following the retirement of Jean Lefranc from the Boston Symphony at the end of the 1946-1947 season, Serge Koussevitzky appointed Joseph de Pasquale Principal viola of the Boston Symphony beginning in the 1947-1948 season. Jean Cauhapé remained in the second chair of the viola section. Joseph de Pasquale was married to the niece of Serge Koussevitzky's wife, Natalya Ushkov Koussevitzky. In Boston, de Pasquale played the very large Gasparo de Salo viola. Eugene Ormandy favored the richer sound of a large viola and insisted his viola section use these. Joseph de Pasquale's Gasparo de Salo viola was large even by these standards. Ormandy had invited Joseph de Pasquale to join the Philadelphia Orchestra on several occasions, and after seventeen seasons in Boston, de Pasquale became Philadelphia Orchestra Principal viola in the 1964-1965 season. Joseph Pasquale held the first viola position in Philadelphia until he retired at the end of the 1995-1996 season. Harry Ellis Dickson, BSO violinist, and sometime conductor of the Boston Pops said that de Pasquale was know for two things, besides his music. One was that he was an excellent cook and the other was his means of expression. "...he was known as 'Mister Malaprop'...Just before the birth of his first child...I said 'dont do what I did...we waited so long to go the the hospital that the baby was almost born on the way'. 'Oh', he said, if the baby comes, all you goda to do is cut the biblical cord!'" 39 de Pasquale taught at the Curtis Institute for more than 20 years, succeeding his teacher and mentor William Primrose. The list of his successful students in US symphony orchestras is long, his legacy to orchestra music making.
Roberto Díaz with Christoph Eschenbach
Roberto Díaz was born in Santiago, Chile on November 15, 1960. His was a musical family; Roberto Díaz's father was also a violist, and his mother a pianist 138. Although Roberto Díaz began with the violin, he switched to viola when the family moved to Atlanta 136. Díaz studied the Chile Conservatory, where his father taught, and, beginning in 1978 at the New England Conservatory with Burton Fine. He then studied with Joseph de Pasquale at the Curtis Institute. After graduation, Roberto Díaz was viola with the Minnesota Orchestra under Sir Neville Marriner. Roberto Díaz was viola with the Boston Symphony 1985-1990. In 1988, Roberto Díaz won the Washington International Competition 137, unusual for a viola. He departed Boston to become Principal viola of the National Symphony of Washington D.C. under Mstislav Rostropovich 1990-1996. In 1996, Roberto Díaz won the competition to become Principal viola of the Philadelphia Orchestra, following the retirement of his teacher, Joseph de Pasquale. Roberto Díaz was Principal viola with the Philadelphia Orchestra for ten seasons, 1996-2006. When Gary Graffman decided to retire as President of the Curtis Institute in 2005 the Board of Curtis selected Roberto Díaz to succeed Graffman beginning in 2006. This continues the Curtis tradition of being headed by a performing musician, such as Díaz's predecessors, such as: Josef Hofmann, Efrem Zimbalist, Rudolf Serkin and of course Graffman. Roberto Díaz plays on a 1739 Camilli viola and a 1595 Amati viola that was formerly owned by William Primrose.
Choong-Jin Chang was born in Korea in 1968. He was soloist with the Seoul Philharmonic at age 12, as first place winner of the Yook Young National Competition. The next year, 1981, C. J. Chang entered the Juilliard School. He then moved to the Curtis Institute, where he graduated in the Class of 1994. Chang's teachers have included Jascha Brodsky, Margaret Pardee, and his Principal viola predecessor Joseph de Pasquale. Following Curtis, in November, 1994, C. J. Chang joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as Associate Principal viola. He was advanced to the Principal viola chair in the 2006-2007 season. Choong-Jin Chang is also an enthusiastic chamber music musician.
Choong-Jin Chang was a founding member of the Johannes Quartet, Robert Chen first, Soovin Kim second, Choong-Jin Chang viola and cellist Peter Stumpf. The Johannes Quartet has been the resident quarter of the Philadelphia Chamber Music Society. C. J. Chang teaches both violin and viola at the Boyer College of Music at Temple University. C. J. Chang continues the Philadelphia Orchestra rich viola tradition.
Principal Oboes of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1
Adolph Sauder was born in Pennsylvania of German parents in January, 1863. Sauder was the first Principal oboe of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the initial 1900-1901 season. Sauder also performed in the Bach Festivals in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania in 1901, 1903, 1904, and 1905.
Karl Stiegelmayer was probably born in Germany in 1869. Karl Stiegelmayer was the second of the Philadelphia Orchestra Principal oboes, serving in the 1901-1902 season. From 1903-1910, Karl Stiegelmayer took the second chair oboe position. In the Summer of 1904 at the Anne Arbor Michigan May Festival, Karl Stiegelmayer was second oboe of the Boston Festival Orchestra, a summer orchestra organized by Boston musicians Emil Mollenhauer (1855-1927) and George W. Stewart (1851-1940). His colleague Robert Minsel also played with the Boston Festival Orchestra during summers of this period. Philadelphia Orchestra records show Stiegelmayer serving in Philadelphia until the end of the 1909-1910 season, but Chicago Symphony records show Stiegelmayer's service beginning in the 1909-1910 season. In Chicago, Karl Stiegelmayer was second oboe of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra for eleven seasons 1909-1920. He may then have returned ot Germany, since no other record of him after 1920 has been located, so far.
Alfred Doucet was born in Marseille, France August 29, 1862. He came from a musical family, he and his brother Louis L. Doucet both being oboists. Alfred Doucet studied at the Paris Conservatoire, where he won the Premier prix in oboe in the 1881 Concour, studying under the last year of Charles Colin (1832-1881) at the Conservatoire before Georges Gillet (1854-1820) became responsible for oboe at the Conservatoire. He emigrated to the U.S. in 1888 to New Orleans, then Cincinnati, then Philadelphia, and then New York. He was Principal oboe for the Philadelphia Orchestra for 11 seasons from 1902 to 1913. During this time, Doucet was also Principal oboe in the Bethlehem (Pennsylvania) Bach Festival orchestra 1903-1905. Doucet seems to have been one of the first chair musicians dismissed by Leopold Stokowski at the end of his first season with the Philadelphia Orchestra. Stokowski was interested to hire the Belgian oboist Henri de Busscher 162. Henri de Busscher (1880–1975) was Principal oboe at the Queens Hall Orchestra in London and later Principal of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, but union rules prevented the Philadelphia Orchestra from hiring him. From 1912 to 1914, Doucet recorded more than 13 sides for Victor Talking Machine Company, including playing in the Victor Concert Orchestra. In the 1913-1914 season Alfred Doucet was Principal oboe of the Minneapolis Symphony. He toured with the Bracale Opera Company to Latin America in 1917, 1918, and 1919. He and his son Louis L. Doucet (born in France 1882) were both members of the Minneapolis Symphony. Louis played oboe with the St. Louis Symphony 1911-1912, and English Horn in Minneapolis 1920-1924.
Attilio Marchetti was born in Bologna, Italy July 15, 1883. In the 1910s. Attilio Marchetti was Principal oboe at La Scala, Milan under Arturo Toscanini. Later, he was Principal oboe under Luigi Mancinelli (1848-1921) at the Costanzi Theater, Rome, (later renamed the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma 130 of which Ricardo Muti was appointed Music Director nearly a century later). In the US, Attilio Marchetti was initially Principal oboe of the Chicago Opera Association orchestra under Cleofonte Campanini (1860-1919). Then, Marchetti was selected by Stokowski as Principal oboe of the Philadelphia Orchestra in Stokowski's second season, 1913-1914. According to correspondence, Leopold Stokowski wanted to recruit the Belgian oboe Henri de Busscher (1880–1975) as Principal oboe to replace Alfred Doucet, but could not due to union problems. Stokowski settled on Marchetti, but with the intention of only retaining him for a season 163. So, in September, 1913, Attilio Marchetti was appointed Principal oboe of the Philadelphia Orchestra. In fact, Marchetti lasted two seasons, 1913-1915 until Marcel Tabuteau was hired. Attilio Marchetti performed at in the Maine Music Festivals in the early 1920s. His arrangements for string trio of J. S. Bach suites and tutorial books on the oboe were published in 1937. In the 1950s, he became active in the importing of woodwinds into the U.S. He died in New York July 1965.
Marcel Tabuteau was born in Compiègne, in Picardy in the north of France on July 2, 1887. As a youth, he played in the local band, and in about 1900, gained admission to the Paris Conservatoire. He studied under the legendary oboist Georges Gillet (1854-1920). Marcel Tabuteau won the Premier prix for oboe at the Paris Conservatoire in 1904 Concour. He was Principal oboe of the New York Symphony 1906-1908. Marcel Tabuteau then became Principal oboe of the Metropolitan Opera orchestra under Toscanini beginning in the 1908-1909 season. Tabuteau was Principal oboe of the Metropolitan Opera for seven seasons, 1908-1915. Marcel Tabuteau joined the Philadelphia Orchestra under Stokowski in the 1915-1916 season.
[this mini-biography is still under construction: please buy and read the fascinating Tabuteau biography by oboist and Tabuteau student Laila Storch: Marcel Tabuteau: How Do You Expect to Play the Oboe if you Can't Peel a Mushroom ? Indiana University Press 2008.]
Laila Storch with Tabuteau and fellow oboe students Louis Rosenblatt and Laurence Thorstenberg
John de Lancie, left, with Anthony Gigliotti, clarinet, Bernard Garfield, bassoon, Mason Jones, horn in 1970
John de Lancie was born in Berkeley, California, July 26, 1921. He studied there with Julien Shanis, clarinet of the San Francisco Symphony for 25 seasons. In 1963, at age 14, John de Lancie came to Philadelphia to attend the Curtis Institute of Music as a student of Marcel Tabuteau. De Lancie graduated from Curtis in the Class of 1940. He then joined the Pittsburgh Symphony in 1940 under Fritz Reiner, and in 1942 entered the U.S. Army. Following World War 2, John de Lancie joined the Philadelphia Orchestra oboe section in 1946. Subsequent to the retirement of his teacher Marcel Tabuteau, John de Lance became Principal oboe of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1954-1955 season. John de Lancie had met Richard Strauss in Germany in 1945 following the end of World War 2 and suggested to Strauss to write his first and only Oboe Concerto. Although Strauss instructed his publisher that de Lancie should have rights to the first US performance, de Lancie was not able to do so. First, Marcel Tabuteau made it clear that he, and not de Lancie was Principal of the oboe section. Second, Eugene Ormandy was of the opinion that the Strauss concerto was an inferior piece 148. Ironically, it was not until 10 years after his retirement that de Lance performed the Strauss Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra. John de Lancie served on the Curtis Institute faculty as instructor of oboe and woodwind ensemble for more than 25 years. In 1977, John de Lancie retired from the Philadelphia Orchestra and became Director of the Curtis Institute. However, it seems that his tenure at Curtis was sometimes stormy. His London Independent obituary said: "...But his insistence on high standards and his inability to compromise brought friction, which came to a head when he brought the Romanian conductor Sergiu Celibidache to America for the first time, for a concert with the Symphony Orchestra of the Curtis Institute in Carnegie Hall, in 1984. Celibidache's extravagant demands, in money and time, provoked a rift between de Lancie and his administrators and board, and in 1985 he resigned..." 148. After his retirement, John de Lancie was also Dean of the New World School in Miami, after which de Lancie returned to his roots in California, joining the faculty of the San Francisco Conservatory of Music until 1992. John de Lancie and his wife Andrea had two children, including son John de Lancie the actor, perhaps best known for his role as "Q" in Star Trek: The New Gerneration. John de Lancie died in Walnut Creek, not far from his Berkeley, California birthplace on May 17, 2002.
Richard Woodhams was born in Palo Alto, California on 17 June 1949 in a family that had pioneered the settlement of the San Francisco peninsula. He came from a musical family, his father Clifton H. Woodhams, Jr. (1915-2003) being an enthusiastic trumpet and violin musician in local music groups. Clifford passed this love of music on to sons Richard and Thomas. The sons were aided in musical experience by Clifton Woodhams co-founding the California Youth Symphony in 1952. Richard Woodhams also studied at the at the Music Academy of the West in California in the summer of 1961. In 1965, age 16, Richard Woodhams entered the Curtis Institute, where he studied oboe with John de Lancie. Richard Woodhams graduated from Curtis in the Class of 1968. His older brother Thomas Woodhams had studied bassoon at Curtis, graduating in the Class of 1965. Richard Woodhams was Principal oboe of the Saint Louis Symphony 1969-1977, when he left to become Principal oboe of the Philadelphia Orchestra.
photo: Chris Lee
Richard Woodhams made a number of distinguished recordings with the Philadelphia orchestra, including the Oboe Concerto of Richard Strauss (whom Richard Woodhams' teacher John de Lancie had encouraged Strauss to write). Also active in chamber music, Richard Woodhams has given the premieres of numerous works, including of William Bolcom (1938- ), Chuck Holdeman (1947- ), Thea Musgrave (1928- ), Bernard Rands (1934- ), Ned Rorem (1923- ), Richard Wernick (1934- ), and Ellen Taaffe Zwilich (1939- ). He has also been active in music festivals, including the Aspen Music Festival, where regularly teaches and where he performed the Christopher Rouse (1949- ) Oboe Concerto (2004) in 2009, the Marlboro Music Festival - Vermont and La Jolla Music - California. Richard Woodhams succeeded John de Lancie as oboe Professor at the Curtis Institute in 1986. So, both the Philadelphia Orchestra and the Curtis Institute continued their remarkable heritage as being among the founders of the modern US school of oboes playing, continuing the Tabuteau, de Lancie, and now Woodhams heritage.
William Kincaid, flute and Marcel Tabuteau, oboe,
during the 1936 Philadelphia transcontinental US tour
Principal Bassoons of the Philadelphia Orchestra
Oskar Modess, with wife Anna, sons Walter and Edgar in 1922
Oskar Modess was born in Mittweida (between Leipzig and Dresden), Germany on January 12, 1868. He was recruited by Theodore Thomas to the Chicago Orchestra and emigrated to the U.S. in April, 1893. Modess was Principal bassoon of the Chicago Symphony 1893-1895. He was then selected by Fritz Scheel as the first Principal bassoon of the newly formed Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1900-1901 season. Modess left the Philadelphia Orchestra after one season and went to New York City, where he played in New York concerts. Oskar Modess joined the John Philip Sousa Band in 1910-1911 and went on their 1911 around-the-world tour to England, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Modess produced a widely used bassoon teaching chart in 1916. In the 1920s and 1930s, Oskar Modess played oboe in New York City theater and hotel orchestras.
William Gruner in 1923
William Gruner was born in Berlin, Germany January 12, 1883, and emigrated to the U.S. in April, 1906 to join the Philadelphia Orchestra at the invitation of Fritz Scheel. William Gruner was a long time member of the Philadelphia Orchestra, playing bassoon from 1906-1917 and 1929-1951. He was Principal in his first year with the Orchestra, and third bassoon thereafter23. He began playing bassoon for the Victor Talking Machine Company from 1917 until at least 1929 including on Blue Seal and Red Seal disks. Much of this recording was with the Victor Orchestra, the house recording orchestra conducted by Josef Pasternack (1881-1940). One of William Gruner's best recordings was of the Weber Hungarian Fantasy opus 35 in October, 1926, an early Victor electrical recording. William Gruner was also active as a conductor of local semi-professional orchestras in suburban Philadelphia, including also Music Director of the Delaware County Music Club and also the Concert Society of Upper Darby, both in the 1920s 185) William Gruner retired from the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1951. Gruner participated in the Robin Hood Dell concert in 1962 that commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of Leopold Stokowski joining the Philadelphia Orchestra, Gruner being born only 9 months after Stokowski. William Gruner died in suburban Philadelphia in February, 1971, age 88.
Paul Pieschel was born in Germany in December 1856. He emigrated to the U.S. in 1880. He played in the Buffalo Philharmonic Society orchestra at least in the 1884-1885 season 37. Pieschel was active in New York orchestras in the 1890s. Pieschel was appointed Principal bassoon by Karl Pohlig when he took over the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1908-1909 season, but left the orchestra after that single season. Pieschel then relocated to the New York City area, living in Connecticut. In the 1910s, he both organized concerts and conducted concerts in the Connecticut area near Yale University.
Benjamin Kohon while at NY Philharmonic in 1938
Benjamin Kohon was born in Odessa in the Ukrainian on July 6, 1890. He came to the U.S. with his family in 1895, and began bassoon instruction at age 11 with his father Marcus, also a bassoonist. By 1906, he was already of bassoonist with the Russian Symphony Orchestra. Beginning in the 1908 season, Benjamin Kohon was appointed solo bassoon of the New York Philharmonic under Gustav Mahler where he stayed 1908-1912, He went to the Philadelphia Orchestra as Principal bassoon from 1912-1915. Then, like Daniel Bonade, Kohon joined Diaghilev's Ballet Russe American tours in 1915 and 1916. The first summer in 1915 was under Ansermet, which group also recorded Schumann under Ansermet for Columbia Graphophone - disk A5845 in 1915. The second tour was in the summer of 1916 under Pierre Monteux. Kohon said that he did this because of the opportunity to travel. He was in the US Navy Band during World War 1, and in 1919, he joined the New York National Symphony which in 1921 merged with the New York Philharmonic, so Kohon was again Principal or solo bassoon of that symphony, where he remained until at least 1942. Kohon died in Beverly Hills, California on April 28, 1984, aged 93.
Richard Krueger was born in Helgoland, Germany, a tiny island 50 km off the coast of Germany in the North Sea in 1872. Krueger emigrated to the U.S. in 1901, and joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as Principal bassoon under Fritz Scheel in the second season, 1901-1902. Richard Krueger was Principal bassoon under each of the first three Music Directors of the Philadelphia Orchestra, coming and going, perhaps taking higher salary offers form other orchestras. Krueger was Principal bassoon under Fritz Scheel 1901-1906, under Karl Pohlig 1907-1908 and 1909-1912, and finally with Leopold Stokowski 1915-1922. This made for a total of seventeen seasons with the Philadelphia Orchestra (but you need a scorecard to keep track). During summers, when orchestra musicians needed to find employment, Richard Krueger was active in the May festivals popular in that era. Krueger played with the Boston Festival Orchestra, a group organized by Emil Mollenhauer and George W. Stewart of the Boston Symphony, one of summer orchestras of the 1890s and 1900s. These summer orchestras were filled with talent; for example, the other bassoon in this festival orchestra was Hugo Litke, one time Principal in the Boston Symphony and the Chicago Symphony. Krueger left Philadelphia during the 1906-1907 season, but returned for the 1907-1908 season. Richard Krueger then left Philadelphia again to become was Principal bassoon in the Theodore Thomas - Chicago Symphony Orchestra for one season 1908 - 1909. Krueger again returned to Philadelphia, as Principal bassoon, where he remained 1909-1912. After 3 seasons away, Leopold Stokowski again appointed Richard Krueger Principal bassoon of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1915-1922. Richard Krueger also was an accomplished flutist. In 1920, for example Richard Krueger accompanied pianist Olga Samaroff (Leopold Stokowski's wife at the time) in Beethoven, with Krueger playing both bassoon and flute. In 1930, Richard Krueger still resided in the Philadelphia area, and was listed as being a theater musician.
Walter Guetter in the 1935
Walter Guetter was born in Philadelphia on April 17, 1895, where his parents had emigrated from Germany in 1892. His father Julius was a violin maker, and initially, Walter studied the violin from age 9 to 14 41. Walter went to Germany at the age of 15 to study bassoon for four years with his uncle, Adolf Guetter at the Klindworth-Scharwenka Conservatory of Music in Berlin 1910-1914. Adolf Guetter had studied under Julius Weissenborn (1837-1888), who was Principal bassoon with the the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra from 1857-1887. Adolf Guetter had played Principal bassoon with the Boston Symphony under Artur Nikisch from 1891-1894. On Walter's return to the U.S. in early 1915, he briefly played with the Philadelphia Orchestra, but after auditioning during the Summer of 1915, he entered the Chicago Symphony Orchestra for the 1915-1916 season. The next two seasons, 1916-1918 he became Principal oboe of the Chicago Symphony , and then after a year off for service in World War 1, returned to Chicago as Principal bassoon for three seasons 1919-1922. In the 1922-1923 season, Walter Guetter returned to his native Philadelphia as Principal oboe under Stokowski. This formed, as a result, the Orchestra's famous wind group of Walter Guetter bassoon, Marcel Tabuteau, oboe, and William Kincaid, flute, the three of whom played together for the next fifteen seasons. Walter Guetter was sickly all during the 1930s, and according to an interview with Sol Schoenbach, Guetter took off one season in the mid-1930s, when he was succeeded by Ferdinand Del Negro. To experience the magic of Walter Guetter's artistry, listen to the 1929 Sacre du Printemps or the November, 1935 Stravinsky Firebird Suite . On May 1, 1937, Walter Guetter, who had been in frail health for a number of years, died of cancer aged only 42.
Sol Schoenbach was born on March 15, 1915 in New York City of parents who emigrated from Austria in 1901. His family was not particularly musical, but Sol studied with the (later famous) bassoon teacher Simon Kovar (1890-1970). When Schoenbach was offered a scholarship at the Institute of Musical Art (later the Julliard School), he insisted that Simon Kovar (not yet well known) be his teacher. This resulted in Simon Kovar joining the Julliard faculty. 19 From 1932 until 1937, Sol Schoenbach was a studio musician for the CBS staff radio orchestra in New York City. The radio orchestra had the advantage of year-around employment at a time when even the New York Philharmonic musicians only had 30 weeks of guaranteed employment. Then, in 1937, Sol Schoenbach had a successful audition with Eugene Ormandy, and joined the Philadelphia Orchestra, age 22 as Principal bassoon. Schoenbach succeeded the recently deceased Walter Guetter. In the summer of 1940, Sol Schoenbach joined the American Youth Orchestra tour of South America with Leopold Stokowski (see photo above) Stokowski reinforced the AAYO with professionals, although young professionals from Philadelphia and New York. During World War 2, Sol Schoenbach was in 1944 and 1945 in the Army Band in Fort Hamilton, Brooklyn. This was favorable duty for Schoenbach, since on leave weekends, he could be in New York City with his family. Sol Schoenbach was discharged February 12, 1946. The day before his discharge, he had made a famous recording of the Stravinsky Pastorale with Joseph Szigeti (1892-1973) , violin and Mitch Miller (1911-2010), oboe. Sol Schoenbach then returned to Philadelphia and where George Goslee had been Principal bassoon while Schoenbach was in the Army. In the end, Sol Schoenbach regained the Principal bassoon chair in Philadelphia for the 1946-1947 season, and George Goslee went back to a long career as Principal bassoon of the Cleveland Orchestra. Schoenbach remained Principal bassoon of the Philadelphia Orchestra for another 11 seasons. Schoenbach retired from the Philadelphia Orchestra at the end of the 1956-1957 season, having served a total of eighteen seasons. Still age only 42, Sol Schoenbach had accepted the position of Executive Director for the Settlement School of Music, a well-known in Philadelphia music school. Sol Schoenbach was also President of the International Double Reed Society 1981-1984. Schoenbach served at the Settlement Music School until his retirement in 1981 at age 66. Sol Schoenbach died in suburban Philadelphia February 25, 1999.
Ferdinand Del Negro with his contrabassoon 1935
Ferdinand Del Negro in November 24, 1896 in New York City to Italian parents. His father, Luca Del Negro (1873-1940) was a tuba player in the New York Symphony from 1916 until it merger with the Philharmonic and then long term with the New York Philharmonic. Ferdinand, called "Del" by his friends, he was for 40 years, from 1922-1962 a bassoon and contrabassoon player in the Philadelphia Orchestra. Del Negro was self-taught on the bassoon 30. During World War 1, Ferdinand Del Negro served on the presidential yacht "Mayflower". He then returned to New York where he became a life-long friend of Benjamin Kohon, previously Principal bassoon of the Philadelphia Orchestra and then of the New York Philharmonic. Del Negro came to Philadelphia to play in the Fairmount Park summer concerts in about 1921. As a result, he was invited to join the Philadelphia Orchestra bassoon section for the 1922-1923 season, playing primarily contrabassoon. In the mid 1930s when Walter Guetter was ill with developing cancer, Ferdinand Del Negro succeeded Walter Guetter. He was also teaching oboe at the Curtis Institute. During World War 2, with Sol Schoenbach in the Army, Ferdinand Del Negro was rewarded by being named for one season Principal bassoon of the Philadelphia Orchestra. After Del Negro reached compulsory retirement in 1962, he continued teaching bassoon at the Settlement Music School in Philadelphia. See Del Negro and read about the use of the contrabassoon in early Philadelphia Orchestra recordings by clicking on Continued use of Contrabassoon. Ferdinand Del Negro died May, 1986 in Camden, New Jersey, where he had lived for more than 60 years.
George Goslee was born on the last day of 1916, December 31, 1916 in Cleveland, Ohio in a middle class family. George Goslee took up the bassoon at age 12 and later studied with Charles Kayser, bassoon of the Cleveland Orchestra during 1925-1936. Goslee studied at the Eastman School of Music with Vincent Pezzi, who was Principal bassoon of the Rochester Symphony. In his last two years at the Eastman School in 1938 and 1939, George Goslee also played with the Rochester Philharmonic and the Rochester Civic Orchestra, primarily as contrabassoon. In late 1939, Goslee went to New York and studied with Simon Kovar (1890-1970 and teacher of Sol Schoenbach and others). Goslee played with the Indianapolis Symphony 1941-1943. During the next two seasons, from 1943-1945 Goslee was Principal bassoon in Cleveland, appointed by Erich Leinsdorf. Then, for one season 1945-1946, George Goslee joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as Principal bassoon under Eugene Ormandy. When Sol Schoenbach returned from service in World War 2, there was a controversy as to who would be Principal bassoon in Philadelphia. This was a situation experienced by a number of orchestras with musicians returning from the war, with two musicians, but with only one chair. In Philadelphia, Sol Schoenbach prevailed, taking the Principal chair for the 1946-1947 season where he would remain for a further 11 seasons. George Goslee was invited back to Cleveland in the 1946-1947 season as Principal bassoon by the newly arrived George Szell.
Goslee remained with the Cleveland Orchestra with a distinguished career until he retired in August, 1988 after 45 seasons of service. During this period, he was in demand as a teacher, and was appointed Chairman of Bassoon Studies at The Cleveland Institute of Music. When the Blossom Music Festival was organized, it was intended as a teaching experience, as well as concert giving, somewhat like Tanglewood, and Goslee taught at Blossom since its inception in 1968. George Goslee was also active in music festivals, including a number of years teaching at the Aspen Music Festival in Colorado. The artistry of George Goslee can be heard in the many recordings of the Cleveland Orchestra under George Szell, Pierre Boulez and Lorin Maazel. In particular, the Stravinsky Rite of Spring and the Berceuse from the Firebird, as well as the famous 1966 recording of the Bartok Concerto for Orchestra, the Berlioz Symphonie Fantastique, and the 1978 Rimsky-Korsakov Shéhérazade recording. George Goslee died October 19, 2006, aged 89 with good health until just days before his death.
Bernard Garfield (you can always recognize that black bassoon)
Bernard Garfield was born in May, 1924. During World War 2, Garfield was in the U.S. Army 1943-1946. In 1945, presumably while in the Army, Bernard Garfield studied at the Royal College of Music in London, where he received an ARCM degree (Associate of the Royal College of Music). After discharge, Garfield studied in New York City, gaining a BA in English Literature from New York University, and a MA in Music from Columbia University. Garfield also taught, performed and studied at the Aspen Music Festival 57.
In 1946, Bernard Garfield, with John Barrows founded the New York Woodwind Quintet 55, which Garfield directed until 1957. The members of the New York Woodwind Quintet at that time were Samuel Baron, flute, Jerold Roth, oboe, David Glazer, clarinet, John Barrows, horn and Bernard Garfield, bassoon 55. During about the same period, Garfield was also Principal bassoon of the Little Orchestra Society of New York, a group organized by Thomas Scherman in 1947 for smaller scale orchestral works 56. This was overlapping with his work 1950-1957 as Principal bassoon of the Orchestra of the New York City Ballet. In 1957, Bernard Garfield won the audition with the Philadelphia Orchestra where he became Principal oboe in the 1957-1958 season. Bernard Garfield was Garfield remained Principal bassoon of the Philadelphia Orchestra for 42 seasons, retiring at the end of the 1998-1999 season. During this time, he also taught at Temple University, where he retired in 2004, and at the Curtis Institute, from which he retired in 2008. As well as simply teaching Garfield's students have also commented on his deep and continuing interest in them and encouragement of their careers. Bernard Garfield has been admired by his colleagues not only for tone and depth of his bassoon playing, but also for his sense of humor.
Daniel Matsukawa was born in 1968 in Argentina to Japanese parents. When Matsukawa was three, his family moved to New York City. There, Daniel Matsukawa took up the bassoon at age 13. Daniel Matsukawa was then a scholarship student at the pre-college division of Juilliard and of the Manhattan School of Music, where he studied with Harold Goltzer and Alan Futterman. In New York, Daniel Matsukawa made his solo concerto debut in Carnegie Hall in 1986 at the age of eighteen. Matsukawa studied at the Julliard School for two years before being admitted to the Curtis Institute, where he graduated in the Class of 1992. At Curtis, Daniel Matsukawa studied with his predecessor, former Philadelphia Orchestra Principal bassoon Bernard Garfield. In the mid-1990s, Daniel Matsukawa was Principal bassoon for the Virginia Symphony. He was also Principal bassoon of the the St. Louis Symphony, and the Memphis Symphony. Daniel Matsukawa was named Principal bassoon of the National Symphony Orchestra of Washington DC in the 1997-1998 season.
After three seasons in Washington DC, Daniel Matsukawa was appointed Principal bassoon of the Philadelphia Orchestra, joining a long tradition of double-reed excellence. He has also branched into conducting, including in Japan, where he has conducted at the Pacific Music Festival since 2009. Matsukawa teaches at both the Curtis Institute and the Boyer College of Music at Temple University - Philadelphia. As well as many Philadelphia Orchestra recordings, Matsukawa in 1998 with Kurt Masur recorded Shostakovich’s Symphony no 7 as acting principal bassoon with the New York Philharmonic. Critics have uniformly praised the music-making of Daniel Matsukawa, such as this Philip Kennicott quote: "...As an orchestral player, he can be relied on for a burst of rich maroon and dark crimson in the collective sound. His playing is elastic and agile, and thankfully accurate." 147.
Principal Clarinets of the Philadelphia Orchestra
Henry Weissenborn was born in California in 1876 of German émigrés from Hanover, Germany. He was the Principal clarinet of the Philadelphia Orchestra for six concerts in the first season of the Philadelphia Orchestra, 1900-1901. Henry Weissenborn returned to the clarinet section of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1903-1904 season.
Fritz or Frederich Dieterichs was born in Brunswick (Braunschweig), in the north of Germany on February 29, 1872. He emigrated to the U.S. in November, 1901 to take up his position as Principal clarinet of the Philadelphia Orchestra. He became a U.S. citizen in June, 1907. While in Philadelphia, during the summers, Fritz Dieterichs was regularly Principal clarinet in the Boston Festival Orchestra, a summer orchestra organized by George W. Stewart, with Emil Mollenhauer , made up of Boston Symphony Musicians, and orchestra musicians from New York and Philadelphia which played the summer festivals in the 1890s and 1900s. Fritz Dieterichs remained Principal clarinet of the Philadelphia Orchestra for nearly 12 seasons. However, Dieterichs did not complete the 1912-1913 season in Philadelphia, indicating that he may have been one of the Philadelphia musicians peremptorily dismissed by Stokowski during his first season as Music Director in Philadelphia. Fitz Dieterichs departure from Philadelphia at the end of the 1912-1913 season After leaving the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1913, Fritz Dieterichs remained in Philadelphia as a theater musician. In the 1950s, Fritz Dieterichs was still living in Philadelphia.
Robert Lindemann in 1921
Robert Lindemann was born in Paderborn, Germany in modern-day North Rhine-Westphalia on January 28, 1884. He studied first with his father Eduard Lindemann. Robert Lindemann emigrated to the U.S. at age 27 in September, 1911. He moved first to Minnesota, where in about 1911-1913, he was appointed Principal clarinet with the Saint Paul Symphony Orchestra 130 (which later merged with the Minneapolis Symphony). Then, in the 1913-1914 season Robert Lindemann moved to Philadelphia, where he was appointed Principal clarinet of the Philadelphia Orchestra, following the abrupt dismissal of Fritz Dieterichs by the new Principal conductor, Leopold Stokowski. Robert Lindemann remained Principal clarinet for four seasons 1913-1917. It seems likely that Stokowski again dismissed his Principal clarinet, and Lindemann did not return to Philadelphia in 1917-1918. Robert Lindemann then moved to New York, where he was appointed Principal clarinet of the New York Symphony in 1918-1923 under conductor Walter Damrosch. Robert Lindemann was then appointed Principal clarinet of the Chicago Symphony by Frederick Stock in the 1923-1924 season. Robert Lindemann then had a long service with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra from 1923-1949, a 26 year term. Lindemann had survived not only Frederick Stock, but also Désiré Defauw, and Artur Rodzinski, so he must have been able. He was succeeded during the term of Rafael Kubelik by Mitchell Lurie (who only lasted one season under Kubelik). During his first season in Chicago, Rafael Kubelik tried to replace 22 of the orchestra's musicians, so perhaps it was not surprising that he retired Robert Lindemann who was age 65. In Chicago, Robert Lindemann also played in the Chicago Woodwind Quintet in the 1930s. Robert Lindemann died in Everett, Washington in October, 1975, age 91, after a rich and varied career consistently at the top of his profession.
1917-1922 Daniel Bonade
(See the Daniel Bonade entry for 1924).
Georges Grisez in 1921
Georges Grisez was born in Paris on 31 March 1884. He likely studied clarinet with the famous Arthur Grisez (not his father, perhaps an uncle?). He studied at the Paris Conservatoire, taking his Premier prix in 1902. Then elected to the clarinet section of the Société des Concerts du Conservatoire Orchestra 1903-1904. Georges Grisez came to the US in October, 1904 aged 20 recruited during the tenure of Boston conductor Wilhelm Gericke to become Principal clarinet of the Boston Symphony Orchestra beginning in the 1904-1905 season. Grisez was Principal clarinet for ten seasons 1904-1914. During that period, he played with his close friend Georges Longy, Principal oboe of the Boston Symphony , in the Georges Longy Club, a wind chamber group 35. Georges Grisez made several acoustic recordings of clarinet excerpts in 1913 for Phono-Cut records of Boston. Georges Grisez returned to France during World War 1, active in the French Army. Following the was, Grisez returned to the US, where he was in the clarinet section of the New York Symphony. He was a member of the New York Chamber Society in 1921. He played the Brahms Clarinet Quintet with the Letz String Quartet at the Maverick Concerts in Woodstock, New York in Summer 1921. He was principal clarinet of the Philadelphia Orchestra for the 1922-1923 season, but it seems that his contract was not renewed by Stokowski. Grisez was Principal clarinet of the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra 1923-1936. During 1927-1934, Georges Grisez taught clarinet at the University of Minnesota 34. Georges Grisez joined the NBC Symphony in its initial season in 1938.
charcoal sketch from a 1938 NBC Symphony publicity brochure
Alexander Williams was Principal clarinet during most of the NBC Symphony years. Williams was solo clarinet at the New York Philharmonic under Toscanini, who brought Williams to the NBC Symphony. Georges Grisez then became Principal clarinet of the Baltimore Symphony, where in fact he died, during a performance. On 14 March 1946 Grisez was on stage with the Baltimore Symphony when he collapsed performing the opening glissando of Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue (1924), and later died --- two weeks before his 62nd birthday 25. Georges Grisez's later successor as Principal clarinet of the Philadelphia Orchestra, Ricardo Morales said in an interview that the exposed opening glissando of the Rhapsody in Blue is "...one of the scariest to play...Why? Because everyone knows how it goes, and if it is not quire right, everyone immediately notices...". Perhaps this also had an effect on even as great a clarinet player as Georges Grisez.
Rufus Arey was born in Vinalhaven, Maine in February 28, 1887 from a long line of the Arey family of Maine. He was the fourth generation son to bear the Rufus Arey name. His father was a wholesale grocer in Maine Arey studied clarinet in Boston. Arey the played as Solo clarinet for the Brooklyn Mark Strand Orchestra, a theater orchestra, which also played for silent movies 58. From about 1919-1924, Rufus Arey was Principal clarinet of the Detroit Symphony. Elizabeth Gunlogson in a doctoral thesis 152 quotes a former student of Rufus Arey as to his hiring and subsequent departure from Philadelphia:
"...In 1924 [was 1923], the Detroit Symphony on tour passed through Philadelphia. Arey auditioned for Leopold Stokowski...The audition lasted for an hour [and] He got the job, but at the same salary that he was receiving in Detroit ($125.00 per week). It seems that this was more than the Philadelphia Orchestra had ever paid a first clarinet player. He accepted with the understanding that a raise would be forthcoming for the next season. After the 1925 [was 1924] season ...he asked for his promised raise... Stokowski had stated that he was gratified that they had finally found a clarinet player who could play in tune. Arey felt secure. But the promised raise was not forthcoming, so, in a moment of anger, Arey refused the contract and quit the orchestra..."
After leaving the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1923, Rufus Arey was a long-time section teacher of clarinet at the Eastman School of Music 1927-1954 152. In Rochester, Arey also performed with the Rochester Philharmonic and the Eastman Wind Ensemble. Rufus Arey died in his family home in Vinalhaven, Maine in December 1966.
Daniel Bonade in the 1920s
Daniel Bonade was born on April 4, 1894 in Geneva, Switzerland, of French parents. He studied clarinet at the Paris Conservatoire in the clarinet class of Prosper Mimart and also studied with Henri Lefebvre, clarinet of the Paris Opera. Bonade won clarinet Premier prix at the Paris Conservatoire in the 1913 Concour. In 1915 in Paris, Daniel Bonade played clarinet in the Garde républicaine Band, along with fellow-clarinetist and later Philadelphia Orchestra musician Lucien Cailliet . Daniel Bonade relocated to the U.S., initially to New York City in March, 1915, at age 20. In 1916, Bonade joined Diaghilev's Ballet Russe second American tour under Ernest Ansermet. Bonade then joined the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1917 as Principal clarinet when Leopold Stokowski decided to replace Robert Lindemann. Bonade stayed in Philadelphia until the end of the 1921-1922 season. During the 1922 and 1923 seasons Bonade was touring and playing concerts in France, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium and England. He then returned to the Philadelphia Orchestra as Principal clarinet in 1924 when the Philadelphia Orchestra could not reach agreement with Rufus Arey to continue Arey's contract Daniel Bonade was again Principal clarinet in Philadelphia until the end of the 1929-1930 season when he was succeeded by Louis deSantis, his predecessor in Cleveland. During 1931-1933 Daniel Bonade was Principal clarinet with the CBS Radio Symphony in New York City, providing year-around employment, compared with the limited seasons of contemporary symphony orchestras.
Daniel Bonade at the time of the Cleveland Orchestra
Then, from 1933 to 1941 he was Principal clarinet with the Cleveland Orchestra. Daniel Bonade joined the Toscanini-NBC Symphony tour to South America in the summer of 1940. In 1942, Daniel Bonade again played for the CBS Radio Orchestra. Daniel Bonade was teacher to many later famed orchestral clarinetists, and had in the US an impact in clarinet playing perhaps similar to Marcel Tabuteau for the oboe. While in Philadelphia, he taught at the Curtis Institute and while in Cleveland at the Cleveland Institute of Music. Similarly, when in New York, Daniel Bonade taught at the Julliard School 1948-1960. From the 1930s until their departure for France, Daniel and his wife Maud Bonade retained a permanent residence in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. While in the US, nearly every Summer, except the war years, the Bonades also sailed for France. In fact, during the 1920s and 1930s, Bonade seemed to have crossed the Atlantic by steamship at least 9 times. Bonade was a US citizen from 1920.
Daniel Bonade in the 1950s
Daniel and Maud Bonade retired to Cannes on the south coast of France in 1960, where he died in November, 1976.
Louis deSantis born April 22, 1880 at Torino di Sangro in the Abruzzo Region of Italy. Louis deSantis emigrated to the US in about 1916. In the early 1920s, Louis deSantis was clarinet of Chicago Lyric Opera. He then joined the Saint Louis Symphony in about 1924-1926. In the 1926-1927 season, Nikolai Sokoloff selected deSantis as Principal clarinet of the Cleveland Orchestra. deSantis remained in Cleveland for three seasons. Then, deSantis was selected as Principal clarinet of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1930-1931 season. Since the failure to re-hire Rufus Arey in 1924, Stokowski had been generally satisfired with Daniel Bonade as Principal. However, at the end of the 1929-1930 season, Stokowski made sweeping changes to the Philadelphia Orchestra roster, including replacement of several Principals, including Daniel Bonade. Stokowski hired Louis deSantis, but this lasted only one season 1930-1931. During that same season, Stokowski had hired the young Robert McGinnis directly out of the Curtis Institute into the Philadelphia Orchestra clarinet section. In the next season, 1931-1931, Stokowski elevated Robert McGinnis to the Principal clarinet chair, and Louis deSantis departed. During 1930-1935, Louis deSantis was Principal clarinet with the CBS radio Orchestra under Howard Barlow (1892-1972). This was a desirable post during the Depression years, since it was year-around employment, unlike any of the symphony orchestras of that era. Also, although generally forgotted today, Howard Barlow was a generally gifted and interesting conductor. His only conducting training was apparently some brief lessons from Wilberforce Whiteman, father of Paul Whiteman. Similarly, his knowledge of instruments, including the cello and wind instruments was essentially self-taught. Howard Barlow was conductor of the CBS radio orchestra from 1927-1943, and from 1943-1959 on NBC radio and then television, with the the long-running Voice of Firestone orchestral programs. As to Louis deSantis, the early 1940s, he was a member of the Philadelphia region WPA Orchestra, according to World War 2 draft records. Louis deSantis seems to have continued to reside in suburban Philadelphia, where he died prior to 1960. Contemporary writers considered Louis deSantis's clarinet style (although he was Italian-born) to be French in style, somewhat like Daniel Bonade or Gaston Hamlin of the Boston Symphony.
Robert McGinnis was born in Delaware County, west of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on February 1, 1910. His father, Claude Stonecliffe McGinnis (1881-1964) was a Physics professor at Temple University, Philadelphia, but also an amateur clarinetist. Robert McGinnis was a student of Daniel Bonade at the Curtis Institute from 1925, graduating in May, 1930. McGinnis joined the Philadelphia Orchestra in the Autumn of 1930, and became Principal clarinet 1931-1940. During the 1940-1941 season, McGinnis was the Principal clarinet of the Cleveland Orchestra under Rodzinski. During World War 2, 1942-1945, he was in the U.S. Navy Band. Following the War, he returned to the Cleveland Orchestra as Principal clarinet for one season, 1945-1946. Then, in the 1947-1948 season, McGinnis was Principal clarinet of the NBC Symphony under Toscanini, and also taught at Juilliard. McGinnis then moved to the New York Philharmonic as Principal clarinet 1948-1960. At the end of the 1959-1960 season, Robert McGinnis retired from the New York Philharmonic and then taught clarinet at Indiana University 1960-1963. After McGinnis, Stanley Drucker became Principal clarinet of the New York Philharmonic beginning with the 1960-1961 season. In an interesting posting on Klarinet Archive, Daniel Leeson wrote: "…I recently received a charming note from Sara McGinnis Thomson, daughter of the late Robert McGinnis, among other things formerly first clarinet in the New York Philharmonic, immediately preceding the extended and remarkable tenure of the current principle player Stanley Drucker. She wrote to me because of a posting I made on the Klarinet some time ago and in which I spoke of seeing McGinnis playing with Paul LaValle's Band of America at the World's Fair in New York City in 1964. My comments at that time were that I was shocked that a player of McGinnis' competence was reduced to playing a couple of shows a day under Paul LaValle, and she said, "To my knowledge, dad had to play those gigs to bring money in. He could not hold an orchestral position anymore because he was debilitated by arthritis and was in constant and severe pain. He passed away in 1976 of a heart attack." * Robert McGinnis finished his orchestral career playing Co-Principal clarinet (with Philip Fath) with the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra under Joseph Krips 1964-1969. After a remarkable career playing with a long series of leading U.S. orchestras, Robert McGinnis died on January 1, 1976 in Huntington, New York.
Bernard Portnoy (photograph by Zinn, Arthur, and Kufeld, Courtesy of the Cleveland Orchestra Archives)
Bernard Portnoy was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on December 4, 1914. His parents, Bennie and Rachael Portnoy were Russian-Jewish émigrés from the Ukraine who came to Pittsburgh in 1906. Bernard Portnoy began playing the clarinet at age 13. In about 1931, Bernard gained admission to the Curtis Institute, where he studied with Robert McGinnis . McGinnis and Portnoy shared an interesting number of Principal clarinet positions over their careers, including of the Cleveland Orchestra, the NBC Symphony, and the Philadelphia Orchestra. Bernard Portnoy graduated from Curtis in the Class of 1937. Following graduation, Bernard Portnoy was appointed Principal clarinet of the Pittsburgh Symphony by Fritz Reiner, serving from about 1937-1940. In the 1940-1941 season, Bernard Portnoy returned to Philadelphia to join the Eugene Ormandy and the Philadelphia Orchestra as Principal clarinet. Portnoy remained in Philadelphia as Principal for four seasons 1940-1943. During World War 2, beginning in 1943, Portnoy entered the US Merchant Marine, although he remained on the official roster of the Philadelphia Orchestra until 1946. At the conclusion of World War 2, in 1946, Portnoy was not returned to the Principal clarinet position in Philadelphia, so is listed as Philadelphia Principal clarinet 1940-1943. There are some accounts that Portnoy had alienated certain of his Philadelphia colleagues. Instead, in 1946 he joined the Cleveland Orchestra. Bernard Portnoy went to Cleveland in George Szell's second season as Music Director, 1947-1948. Portnoy remained in Cleveland for six seasons. Then in 1953, Portnoy joined the NBC Symphony for the last two seasons of Arturo Toscanini tenure. After the NBC Symphony, remaining in New York, Portnoy was a New York sessions musician and played on Broadway, including the Broadway cast recording of My Fair Lady with Rex Harrison and Julie Andrews. In New York, Portnoy also played regularly in the WOR Mutual Broadcasting Orchestra, which had the advantage of year-around employment (unlike any of the symphony orchestras of that era other than the Boston Symphony). While in Philadelphia, Portnoy taught at the Curtis Institute, and then at the Julliard School in the 1950s and early 1960s while in New York City. For example, Franklin Cohen , later also Principal clarinet of the Cleveland Orchestra studied with Bernard Portnoy at Juilliard. Then for 20 years, Bernard Portnoy taught clarinet at Indiana University in the 1970s and 1980s. In his retirement from orchestra life, and while at Indiana University, Bernard Portnoy became a successful designer and manufacturer of clarinet mouthpieces and ligatures. Bernard Portnoy died in Marin County, California, north of San Francisco, on December 2, 2006, two days before his 92nd birthday. You can hear Bernard Portnoy in his prime in 1940 with Leopold Stokowski and the Philadelphia Orchestra in the Mozart Sinfonia concertante by clicking here.
Ralph McLane was born in Lynn, Massachusetts on December 19, 1907. McLane was a student of Gaston Hamelin , Principal clarinet of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. When at the end of the 1930-1931 season, Hamelin's contract with the Boston Symphony was nor renewed, because, apparently, Koussevitzky did not approve of him playing a metal clarinet, Hamelin returned to Paris. Ralph McLane followed Hamelin to Paris to study clarinet with him. McLane gave the premiere performance of the Aaron Copland Clarinet Concert in New York City on November 24, 1950 with Eugene Ormandy and the Philadelphia Orchestra. This was the first public performance, following the Benny Goodman radio premiere with Fritz Reiner and the NBC Symphony on November 6, 1950.
Ralph McLane served with the Philadelphia Orchestra for eight seasons. Unfortunately, Ralph McLane died during his last 1950-1951 season of cancer in New York City on February 18, 1951, age only 43.
Anthony M. Gigliotti was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 13, 1922. His father, Joseph Gigliotti, was also a well-known clarinet soloist and teacher. After studying with his father, Anthony Gigliotti gained entrance to the Curtis Institute in about 1939. At Curtis, he studied with Daniel Bonade from about 1939 - 1942. After serving in World War 2, Gigliotti graduated from Curtis in 1946. In 1946-1949, he played in the Orchestra of the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo and in 1948-1949 with the Little Orchestra Society of New York. In the Autumn of 1949, he joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as principal clarinet, serving 47 years until the end of the 1995-1996 season. As well as being a long-time teacher at the Curtis Institute, Gigliotti also taught at Temple University. In 1998, Gigliotti began teaching at the Peabody Conservatory in Baltimore. His son Mark Gigliotti joined the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1982-1983 season, and has been Co-Principal bassoon of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1999-present. Anthony Gigliotti died December 3, 2001 in Camden, New Jersey (he had lived in nearby Cherry Hill, New Jersey).
Following Anthony Gigliotti, the Philadelphia Orchestra went several years without finding a Principal clarinet with whom they were satisfied. First to follow Gigliotti was Bert Hara.
Burt Hara was born in Alameda (east San Francisco Bay), California on February 7, 1963. Hara studied at the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia with Donald Montanaro, Yehuda Gilad and Mitchell Lurie, graduating in 1984. After graduation, Burt Hara was Principal clarinet of the Alabama Symphony Orchestra in the mid-1980s. Then, Hara joined the Minnesota Orchestra in the 1987-1988 season. Hara was appointed Principal Clarinet of the Philadelphia Orchestra by Wolfgang Sawallisch during the 1996-1997 season. The next season, Burt Hara returned to the Minnesota Orchestra in 1997-1998, where he continues to be Principal clarinet of the Orchestra. Burt Hara has been an active teacher throughout his career, including at the University of Alabama, and the University of Minnesota.
Ricardo Morales was born in San Juan, Puerto Rico in 1972. In San Juan, Ricardo Morales, along with his five brothers and sistes at at the Escuela Libre de Musica. All five are now professional musicians; his brother Jaime, for example is a conductor, including of the Venezuela Symphony. Ricardo Moreles then studied at the Cincinnati Conservatory of Music and later at Indiana University, Ricardo Morales orchestral career began as Principal clarinet of the Florida Symphony. was Principal clarinet of the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra from 1993-2003. Wolfgang Sawallisch selected Morales to be Philadelphia Orchestra Principal clarinet in 2002. This was Sawallisch's last appointment of a new musician for Philadelphia 126. Ricardo Morales divides his teaching time between Curtis, and the Boyer College of Music at Temple University in Philadelphia, as well as the Juilliard School (Morales spends much of his free time in New York City). Ricardo Morales has continued the Philadelphia Orchestra tradition of couples playing in the orchestra by marrying orchestra violinist Amy Oshiro. As well as his artistry, Ricardo Morales continues to gather fans for the orchestra and its music through his contagious enthusiasm for his profession, his artistry, and and also his leadership.
In October, 2010, the New York Philharmonic offered Morales the position of Principal clarinet, a position which had been open since the end of the 2008-2009 season following the retirement of Stanley Drucker. In April, 2011, the Philharmonic announced that Ricardo Morales would take up the New York Principal clarinet position in September 2012. However, upon reflection, in March 2012, Ricardo Morales let it be known that he had decided against accepting the New York Philharmonic offer. Of couse, all Philadelphia Orchestra fans are thrilled by this resolution, and the Philadelphia Orchestra woodwind section continues its rich history of excellence.
Principal Flutes of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1
Charles Schoenthal was born in Solingen, about 25 km east of Düsseldorf, Germany on 18 May 1863. Schoenthal emigrated as an infant with his family to Philadelphia in 1865. Schoenthal was a professional musician in Philadelphia in the 1880s and 1890s. Schoenthal joined the Philadelphia Orchestra in the initial 1900-1901 season under Fritz Scheel as Principal flute. Schoenthal remained in Philadelphia as a musician and later returned to the Philadelphia Orchestra flute section for the 1909-1910 season. Charles Schoenthal died suddenly just before the Philadelphia Orchestra 1911-1912 season on 28 August 1911 at age only 48.
Ary van Leeuwen was born in Arnheim, the Netherlands in 1875. His uncle, also Ary van Leeuwen was a Dutch orchestra conductor. Ary was a flute pupil of legendary Joachim Andersen (1847-1909), and brother of Vigo Andersen, the first Principal flute of the Chicago Symphony 1891-1895. Ary van Leeuwen studed with Joachim Andersen while still in the Netherlands and then followed Andersen to Berlin to continue his flute studies. While in Berlin Ary van Leeuwen was Principal flute of the newly formed Berlin Philharmonic from 1897-1901. The next season, Ary van Leeuwen came to Philadelphia, staying for one season, 1901-1902 under Fritz Scheel. Then, in 1903, van Leeuwen taught at the Vienna Conservatory and was Principal flute of the Vienna 'Hof Oper' (now named the Wiener Staatsoper, or Vienna State Opera) beginning in 1903, selected by Mahler. Van Leeuwen continued in Vienna for 17 seasons until the end of 1919-1920, including through World War 1. Following the war, Ary van Leeuwen returned to the US, and was Principal flute of the Cincinnati Symphony for 14 seasons from 1924-1938. Van Leeuwen moved to California in 1939 where he taught at the University of Southern California for another decade. Ary van Leeuwen died in Los Angeles in 1953.
August Rodemann was born in Adenstedt, near Hanover, Germany in January 1870. He emigrated to the U.S. in April 1893 on the same ship with Chicago Orchestra musicians Carl Brueckner, Adolf Goebert, Richard Hilliges, Ernst Kruschwitz, Theodor Seydel, Otto Wolf, and Carl Wunderle. However, August Rodemann does not seem to have played with the Chicago orchestra. Rather, Rodemann moved to San Francisco, where he married and lived at least until September, 1900. August Rodemann joined the Philadelphia Orchestra flute section in the 1902-1903 season. The next year, August Rodemann was advanced to the Principal flute chair, and also became librarian of the Orchestra under Fritz Scheel. Rodemann remained with the Philadelphia Orchestra from 1902 until nearly the end of the 1907 season. During this time, Rodemann was also assistant conductor to Fritz Scheel, which activity seems to have lead to his dismissal from the Orchestra. The story of his dismissal was reported by the New York Times on February 23, 1907 as follows:
'...PHILADELPHIA, Feb. 23. August R. Rodemann, first flutist of the Philadelphia Orchestra, was summarily discharged from that body by the Executive Committee of the orchestra association today. He was held responsible for the trouble yesterday afternoon which caused Mme. Schumann-Heink to quit the stage in tears after her solo number from "Gotterdammerung...' 18
Even reading today accounts of this incident, it is not clear what were the sources of this contretemps. It is said that Rodemann had personal differences with Ernestine Schumann-Heink (1861-1936). Schumann-Heink was usually not the temperamental prima donna that we often associate with the great divas. It would seem that Rodemann was making comments during her performance. As to conducting, while in Philadelphia, August Rodemann also conducted the Tankopanicum Orchestra (the Indian name for the nearby Brandywine River), a predecessor of the Delaware Symphony, which Alfred I. du Pont was seeking to establish, and bankrolled each year. After Philadelphia, Rodemann was for a time Principal flute of the Cincinnati Symphony. Then, August Rodemann went to the New York Symphony, likely as second chair flute, sitting next to Principal Georges Barrère. Rodemann served with the New York Symphony under Walter Damrosch for seven seasons, 1919-1926. August Rodemann taught at Syracuse University in up-state New York in the 1920s. By 1930, August Rodemann's career had declined, and he was living in the Bronx, New York and listed his occupation in the 1930 Census as 'band musician'. However, which band is not indicated, and this may have been one of the many hotel or theatre music groups of the period. It seems that August Rodemann died in New York City sometime before 1940.
Clemente Barone in 1923
Clemente Barone was born on March 8, 1877 in Marsico Nuovo 100 km east of Naples in the Basilicata region of Italy. He emigrated with his family to Philadelphia in 1888. His was a musical family. His father, Pasquale and Pasquale's father were both harpists. His brother Albert Barone was a violinist. William was a pianist. Brother Richard Barone was a violinist, including with the Philadelphia Orchestra. Clemente Barone's wife, Marian Setaro also was of a musical family. Her father played with the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, and her brother Andrew was a timpanist 20. Brother Richard Barone played violin with the Philadelphia Orchestra for one season, 1923-1924. Clemente Barone played third flute in the Philadelphia Orchestra inaugural season 1900-1901, and then returned in the 1904-1905 season, remaining this time six seasons until the end of 1909-1910. In March, 1907, when August Rodemann was dismissed (as described above), Clemente Barone was promoted to the Principal flute chair, where he continued until 1910. Again, the various official Philadelphia Orchestra sources, including Ardoin 1 state that Daniel Maquarre became Principal in the 1910-1911 season, but Emily Butterfield 20 in her fascinating account provides evidence that Clemente played for at least the beginning of Stokowski's first 1912-1913 season. Perhaps Barone was one of the musicians dismissed by Stokowski during his first season. Beginning in 1911, Barone played flute for the Victor Talking Machine Company orchestra in Camden, and with their house trio, the Victor Neapolitan Trio, Clement Barone, Sr., flute, Howard Rattay, violin, and Francis Lapitino, harp, all of the Philadelphia Orchestra. According to John R. Bolig's superb Victor Label Discographies 22, Barone recorded for Victor at least until 1929 (Victor Red Seal 9394, aria from Lakmé). In 1932 and 1933 until he became ill with cancer in 1934, Clemente Barone trained his 11 year old son, Clement Barone Jr. in the flute, and Clement Barone Jr. went on to a career with the Houston Symphony, the Detroit Symphony, and teaching at the University of Michigan. Clemente Barone Sr. unfortunately died relatively young, of cancer, in Philadelphia in 1934.
Daniel Maquarre in 1920
Daniel Maquarre was born in Brussels, Belgium on February 16, 1881, into a musical family. He was son of Clément Maquarre, also a concert flutist, and younger brother of André Maquarre, Principal flute of the Boston Symphony 1898-1918 also, as described below, Principal flute of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1918-1921. (A third and middle brother, Jean Louis - or John - Maquarre, born in Belgium August 25, 1878 was also a musician in New York City. There seems also to have been a fourth brother, Guillaume, or William who was a musician in Paris.) Daniel Maquarre was admitted to the Paris Conservatoire for flute, where he won a first Accessit or runner-up flute prize in the 1894 Concour 28. Daniel Maquarre later received his Premier prix in about the 1899 Concour. Daniel Maquarre was then Principal flute for both the Lamoureux Orchestra and the Colonne Orchestra in Paris 1900-1902. Daniel Maquarre emigrated to Boston in 1903 to join the Boston Symphony under Wilhelm Gericke, where his brother André Maquarre was already BSO Principal flute. Daniel Maquarre played flute with the Boston Symphony Orchestra from 1903-1909. He is said to have departed from the Boston Symphony due to a scandal. According to newspaper accounts, Daniel Maquarre was arrested in San Francisco in 1909 "... upon telegraphic advices from Boston Police where he was wanted upon an Indictment charging him with a serious offense for eloping with Mrs. Matilda Lenom..." 176. Matilda Lenom was the wife of Clément Lenom, fellow Belgian and second oboe of the Boston Symphony 1901-1925. Daniel Maquarre said "...What was I to do? She came to me and pleaded. What else could I do?..." 180. (No doubt a juicy story and scandal at the time. Clément Lenom remarried that same year). Daniel Maquarre joined the Philadelphia Orchestra the next year and remained as Principal flute from 1910-1918. Then, Maquarre joined the Symphony Society of New York under Walter Damrosch as Principal flute in the 1918-1919 season. Maquarre moved to the National Symphony of New York under Artur Bodanzky beginning in the 1920-1921 season, after which the National Symphony merged with the New York Philharmonic, after which Maquarre seems to have stayed in the flute section through the end of the 1923-1924 season. In the later 1920s, Daniel Maquarre was an independent musician in New York City, including for growing live radio broadcasts. Radio performances included of the Classical Trio: Stefano de Stefano harp, Luclen Klrsch cello and Daniel Maquarre flute 179. Daniel Maquarre then returned to Europe, and seems to have settled in France in about 1930.
André Maquarre in Boston 1913
André Maquarre, older brother of Daniel Maquarre, was born in Brussels, Belgium on January 13, 1875. (A third and middle brother, Jean Louis - or John - Maquarre, born in Belgium August 25, 1878 was also a musician in New York City. There seems also to have been a fourth brother, Guillaume, or William who lived in Paris.) After studying with his flutist father, Clement Maquarre, André Maquarre entered the Paris Conservatoire at the same time (about 1890) as the famous flutist Georges Barrère (1876-1944). André won the Premiere prix for flute at the Conservatoire in 1893. André was Principal flute of the Boston Symphony Orchestra for twenty seasons, from 1898-1918 11. In 1918, he followed his brother Daniel to Philadelphia and was his successor as Principal flute of the Philadelphia Orchestra for three seasons. The various Philadelphia Orchestra references indicate André Maquarre as remaining through the end of the 1920-1921 season, but Robert F. Cole 21 states that Stokowski dismissed Maquarre in April, 1921 during a rehearsal, and soon recruited William Kinkaid from the New York Chamber Music Society for the Principal flute position. André Maquarre then went to Los Angeles where he was Principal flute from 1922-1929. André Maquarre returned to Europe in about 1930, and in Paris, became a member of La Société des auteurs, compositeurs et éditeurs de musique, a government-organized company responsible for the management of authors and composers rights and copyrights. André Maquarre died in Paris in 1936, age 61.
William Kincaid was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota on April 26, 1895. In 1911, Kincaid went to New York, enrolling simultaneously in Columbia University and the Institute of Musical Art (later renamed Juilliard), where he studied flute with the legendary George Barrère. After graduating from the Institute of Musical Art in 1913 with his Artist's Diploma, William Kincaid was in the flute section of the New York Symphony 1914-1919, playing with his teacher Georges Barrère, who was Principal flute. During World War 1, Kincaid was briefly in the US Navy, after which, he returned to the New York Symphony. In 1920, Kincaid played solo flute in the New York Chamber Music Society. After Leopold Stokowski dismissed André Maquarre during a rehearsal in April, 1921, William Kincaid was offered the first chair position in the Philadelphia Orchestra. William Kincaid was Principal flute for a remarkable 40 seasons. He retired from the Philadelphia Orchestra at the end of the 1959-1960 season at the mandatory retirement age of 65. In 1928, Kincaid joined the faculty of the Curtis Institute of Music. His teaching made a profound impact of orchestral flute playing in the United States. Demetra Baferos Fairsays in a fascinating Ph.D. thesis 111 writes of William Kincaid and his teacher Georges Barrère: '...we may identify...Georges Barrère, as a primary influence upon American flute playing. Barrère and his students - and his students’ students - have taught approximately 91% of all living flutists in the United States today. Of that vast number, approximately 87% can trace their heritage (through one or more of their teachers) to Barrère student William Kincaid...' 112. Among Kincaid's many flute students who went on to importance were: Burnett Atkinson, Julius Baker, Harold Bennett, Jacob L. Berg, Robert Cole, George Drexler, Doriot Anthony Dwyer, Lloyd Gowen, Byron Hester, Britton Johnson, John Krell, Warren Little, Joseph A. Mariano, Fernando Morrone, Emil Opava, Donald Peck, James Pellerite, Elaine Shaffer, Maurice Sharp, Kenton Terry, Albert N. Tipton, and Carl Woempner. William Kincaid died on March 27, 1967.
James Pellerite with Eugene Ormandy in 1961
James Pellerite was born on September 30, 1926 He studied flute under his predecessor, William Kincaid at the Curtis Institute. Pellerite also studied at Juilliard, where he graduated in 1948. James Pellerite was Principal flute of the Indianapolis Symphony under Fabien Sevitzky (nephew of Serge Koussevitzky) 1949-1951. Pellerite then moved to the Detroit Symphony for four seasons, 1952-1956. He also was solo flute with the L'Orquestra Sinfonica de Puerto Rico. Pellerite became Principal flute of the Philadelphia Orchestra under Eugene Ormandy in the 1960-1961 season, succeeding his teacher, William Kincaid. Later, Pellerite was Professor of Flute at Indiana University 1962-1987. In 1973, Pellerite toured in Australia, and for 3 months, he was Artist in Residence at the Sydney Conservatorium. Pellerite retired to Colorado Springs, Colorado in 1993, where he has become an advocate of the 'Native American Flute', which has five holes, rather than the sixteen of the classical Boehm flute 109.
Murray Panitz was born in New York on 30 August 1925 of Russian Jewish parents. In the late 1930s, Panitz studied at the New York High School for Music and Arts 110. He then studied flute at the Eastman School of Music. While at the Eastman School, he played in the Rochester Philharmonic, and gave the first performance of the Norman Dello Joio (1913-2008) Concertino for flute and Orchestra. Murray Panitz gained a master's degree in music from the Manhattan School of Music. He played flute with the National Symphony of Washington DC. In the 1940s, Panitz played flute with the Goldman Band in summers. He also played in the 1950s with the Symphony of the Air, the successor to the NBC Symphony. Murray Panitz was Principal flute of the New York City Ballet 1960-1961 before coming to the Philadelphia Orchestra. after joining the Philadelphia Orchestra as Principal flute in the 1961-1962 season under Ormandy, he remained in the first chair for 28 seasons, following on William Kincaid's 39 seasons. Murray Panitz also played and recorded with the Philadelphia Woodwind Quintet (Mason Jones, horn, Anthony Gigliotti, clarinet, John De Lancie, oboe and Sol Schoenbach bassoon). The baauty of his tone can be heard in his many recordings, such as in Ravel's Daphnis and Chloe Suite no 2. Murray Panitz died suddenly in New York on April 13, 1989, before the end of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1988-1989 season, age only 63.
Jeffrey Khaner was born on December 22, 1958 in Montréal, Canada. Early in his career, Khaner was Principal flute of the Atlantic Symphony in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Khaner studied flute with Jeanne Baxtresser at the Juilliard School, where he graduated in 1980. Following graduation, in the 1981-1982 season, Khaner was co-Principal flute (with Bernard Goldberg ) of the Pittsburgh Symphony under André Previn. Jeffrey Khaner was then appointed Principal flute of the Cleveland Orchestra in the 1982-1983 season at the end of Lorin Maazel's tenure.
Khaner served in Cleveland for eight seasons, and also taught flute at the Cleveland Institute of Music. For the 1990-1991 season, Riccardo Muti selected Jeffrey Khaner to become Principal flute of the Philadelphia Orchestra. During his tenure with the Cleveland Orchestra and the Philadelphia Orchestra, Jeffrey Khaner has made many excellent recordings, including of chamber works, such as the CD of flute sonatas by Robert and Clara Schumann, and by Brahms on Avie Records, shown above. He has also recorded Ned Rorem's Flute Concerto with the great José Serebrier and the Bournemouth Symphony on Naxos.
José Serebrier and also Jeffrey Khaner are long-time friends of Ned Rorem and advocates of his compositions, and the Rorem Flute Concerto was written for Khaner and premiered by him with the Philadelphia Orchestra in 2003. Jeffery Khaner carries on the historic tradition of Philadelphia Orchestra flutists, and reviews, such as the New York Times speak of "...his consistently agile and thoughtful playing, and in particular by his sense of character..." Since joining the Philadelphia Orchestra, Jeffrey Khaner has taught flute at the Curtis Institute, and starting in 2004, Khaner was also appointed to the faculty of his alma mater, the Juilliard School. After two decades as Principal flute with the Philadelphia Orchestra, Jeffery Khaner continues to show a distinctive beauty of tone and depth of interpretation which has led him to the Principal position of several of the greatest orchestras of the US, including the great Philadelphia Orchestra.
Principal Horns of the Philadelphia Orchestra
Josef (later Joseph) Reiter was born in July, 1848 in Germany. In Germany, he played horn under the famed Franz Strauss (1822-1905) who was also father to Richard Strauss. In a biography of Franz Strauss, Josef Reiter is mentioned as taking part in the premier of Wagner's Parsifal: '... Franz Strauss took part of the Parsifal premiere in Bayreuth 1882, having Josef Reiter as his assistant...' 120. In 1889, Josef Reiter emigrated to the U.S. In 1891, he married, his wife Mary being 23 years younger. In December, 1892 he played horn in a chamber music ensemble in New York City, and with the Arion Society Orchestra under Frank van der Stucken. Reiter was a horn soloist with the Baltimore Symphony in January, 1893. At that same Baltimore concert, the eccentric horn player Xavier Reiter, Principal horn of the Boston Symphony Orchestra was also a horn soloist. Perhaps they were brothers or otherwise related, although records so far do not answer this question. In September and October, 1895, Joseph Reiter was a horn soloist at a concerts in San Francisco and at the University of California, Berkeley. Joseph Reiter was appointed Principal horn for the first season of the Philadelphia Orchestra, 1900-1901 by Fritz Scheel. It may be that Scheel met Reiter during his organization of concerts in San Francisco in 1895, 1896 and 1897. In the 1902-1903 season, Reiter was Principal horn under Anton Seidel in the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, where he stayed for 23 seasons until the end of the 1924-1925 season. As to playing, in a contemporary newspaper review, the New York Times critic wrote: "...Mischa Elman played the Scotch Fantasy, but when Reiter had the melody for only a few bars, he overshadowed Elman. But Reiter can sing on his horn. ..." Joseph Reiter died in New York in about 1930.
Robert Minsel was born in 1876 in Germany. Minsel studied horn at the Leipzig Conservatory. He later became Principal horn of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra. Robert Minsel was Principal horn with the Philadelphia Orchestra under Fritz Scheel for its second season, 1901-1902. After Anton Horner took the first chair of the Philadelphia horn section in the 1902-1903 season, Minsel remained with the Philadelphia Orchestra for two more seasons until the end of 1903-1904. Minsel also played in the Boston Festival Orchestra, a summer orchestra organized by George W. Stewart, with Emil Mollenhauer made up primarily of Boston Symphony Musicians, and orchestra musicians from New York and Philadelphia which played the summer festivals in the 1890s and 1900s. Robert Minsel also played in the May Festival of the University of Michigan. There, he had been a colleague in the horn section of Anton Horner and his brother Joseph Horner. In 1908-1920 Minsel was Principal horn with the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra. Minsel remained with Minneapolis conductor Emil Oberhoffer (1867-1933) for twelve seasons.
Anton Horner about 1920
Anton Horner was born in Gossengrün, Bohemia (then part of Austria-Hungary, now in the Czech Republic, 100 km west of Prague), on June 21, 1877. Anton, his brother Joseph, father Frank and mother emigrated to the U.S. in 1885. The family members became citizens in 1890. His father, Frank Horner, a merchant, had visited the U.S. in the 1870s. Unfortunately, Frank Horner died soon after being naturalized in 1890 161. Both Anton Horner and younger brother Joseph Horner (1882- ) studied horn in the 1880s with their father, but following Frank's death, the family returned to Austria for family support. During the 1890s, both Anton and Joseph continued study of the horn and Anton briefly also studied violin. Joseph studied with their great uncle161, and then in Vienna. Anton in April, 1891 and not yet 14 years old, went to Germany to the Leipzig Royal Conservatory (Königliches Konservatorium der Musik) to study with perhaps the greatest German horn teacher of the 19th century, Friedrich Gumpert (1841-1906) during four years April 1891 - July 1894 24. Gumpert taught horn at the Leipzig Conservatory while serving as Principal horn with the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra 1864-1898. Gumpert, with others including Anton Horner, had worked on developing the so-called "double horn" which was a horn combining the previous F horn and B-flat horn into one instrument, both better sounding and often easier to gain the best results 121. Anton Horner was an early advocate of the double horn, and his role as one of the key teachers of the horn in the US was also instrumental in the wide adoption of that instrument. In 1898, both Anton and Joseph Horner returned to the USA, to Philadelphia. Joseph Horner became what we would call today "utility horn" in the Henry Gordon Thunder Orchestra in Philadelphia in 1899-1900. Anton Horner was appointed Principal horn of the Pittsburgh Symphony by Victor Herbert 1898-1902.
In 1902, Fritz Scheel selected Anton Horner as Principal horn of the Philadelphia Orchestra, where he served an amazing forty seasons. Anton Horner moved from the first horn chair at the peak of his career, making room for the next generation, including a succession of his Curtis Institute students. Anton Horner was Co-Principal horn with Domenico Caputo during the 1929-1930 and 1930-1931 seasons. Beginning in the 1938-1939, Anton Horner moved to the Third Chair of the horn section, where re remained until his retirement at the end of the 1941-1942 season 103. Anton Horner taught at the Curtis Institute from 1924-1942. His students included Arthur Berv, James Chambers, and Mason Jones, all of whom went on to become Principal horns with the Philadelphia Orchestra. Anton Horner's impact on the teaching of his instrument and on US orchestra playing matched that of Marcel Tabuteau for the oboe, William Kincaid for the flute, and Daniel Bonade for the clarinet. Stories about Anton Horner portray him as being a crusty and acerbic teacher and colleague, but also with "a heart of gold", and basically warm person. Anton Horner died in Philadelphia in December 1971, age 94, famed and respected.
Domenico Caputo with wife Margherita in 1923
Domenico Caputo was born at Santa Maria Capua Vetere, in Campania about 30 km north of Naples, Italy on January 22, 1893. He came to New York City in 1911 to join the Metropolitan Opera horn section. Caputo remained with the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra horn section from 1911-after 1924. In the summer of 1915, Caputo played in the orchestra of the Teatro Nationale in Cuba. Also during the 1910s, Domenico Caputo was Principal horn of the New Symphony Orchestra of New York under Arthur Bodansky 102. In the 1920s, Domenico Caputo was Principal horn of the National Symphony Orchestra of New York under Willem Mengelberg 105. Following the merger of the National Symphony Orchestra into the New York Philharmonic, Domenico Caputo was co-Principal horn of the Philadelphia Orchestra with Anton Horner during the 1929-1930 and 1930-1931 seasons at the Philadelphia Orchestra 103. Domenico Caputo died in Imperia, Italy September, 15, 1974 104.
Clarence Mayer was a member of the Philadelphia Orchestra horn section from 1926-1965, and was Principal or Co-Principal from 1931 to 1935 and 1938 to 1941.
Arthur Berv was born in Poland December 29, 1906. He came with his brother Jack to the US in about 1910. Arthur Berv's brothers, Jack Berv (1908-1994) and Harry Berv (1911-2005) were also horn players. Jack and Harry studied at the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia, graduating in the class of 1935. In the 1924-1925 season, at age only 17, Arthur Berv joined the horn section of the Philadelphia Orchestra, perhaps the youngest-ever Philadelphia Orchestra member. Arthur Berv stayed in Philadelphia for three seasons. In the 1926-1927 season, age only 20, Arthur Berv was appointed Principal horn of the New York Symphony under Walter Damrosch 134. Arthur Berv was then Principal horn of the Cleveland Orchestra for two seasons 1928-1930. There was an interesting incident involving Arthur Berv when he was with the Cleveland Orchestra. Nikolai Sokoloff recalled the first rehearsal of a new work for the electronic instrument invented by Theremin. This was a symphony by Joseph Schillinger. Sokoloff recalled the first rehearsal: "...the instrument was wired to a series of outlets on the state, Mr. Theremin sat in front of it and we started the rehearsal... suddenly, the thing emitted the most unearthly, ear-splitting shriek, and to my horror, I saw our wonderful first horn Isadore Berv keel over in a dead faint. It took some time to revive the poor fellow and his instrument was battered by his fall. Theremin was abject in his apologies..." 133. Following Cleveland, Arthur Berv joined the Philadelphia Orchestra under Leopold Stokowski in the 1930-1931 season. Berv was first co-Principal horn with Anton Horner, and then shared the first horn chair responsibilities with Clarence Mayer from 1931 to 1935. Arthur Berv became Principal horn under Eugene Ormandy in the 1935-1936 season. Berv remained with the Philadelphia Orchestra three more seasons, until the end of the 1937-1938 season. In 1938, Arthur Berv joined the NBC Symphony in the second season of Toscanini's direction. The story usually told is that Toscanini was unhappy with the horn section under Frank Stagliano (the first Principal horn selected by Arthur Rodzinski) which he found at the NBC Symphony. From his guest conducting in New York and Philadelphia, Toscanini had been impressed by Arthur, Jack and Harry Berv. The brothers were offered NBC contracts at higher salaries and for a 52 week season. As a result, in the second season, the NBC Symphony horn section included Arthur Berv, Principal, Jack Berv, second horn, Harry Berv, third horn, and Arturo Cerino, fourth horn. During World War 2, Arthur Berv was horn with the U.S. Air Force Band. In New York, Berv taught horn at the Manhattan School of Music. Arthur Berv died on July 8, 1992 in Great Neck (on Long Island), New York.
James Chambers was born in Trenton, New Jersey on December 15, 1920. He made his debut with the Trenton Symphony Orchestra at age fifteen in 1936. Chambers was a student of Anton Horner at the Curtis Institute from 1938-1941. Chambers was second horn with Stokowski's All American Youth Orchestra on its 1940-1941 tour. In 1941, upon graduation from the Curtis, Fritz Reiner asked James Chambers to become Principal horn with the Pittsburgh Symphony. At the beginning of the 1942-1943 season, Chambers joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as Principal horn, during the last season that Anton Horner played with the Orchestra. In 1946 until 1969, Chambers was Principal horn of the New York Philharmonic, and began teaching at the Julliard. He continued at the Juilliard for 42 years until his death. In 1969, he experienced health problems, and ceased playing, but continued as Personnel Manager for the New York Philharmonic until 1987. James Chambers died of a heart attack on January 1, 1989 in Cranberry, New Jersey.
Mason Jones was born June 16, 1919 in Hamilton, New York where his father was a professor of Romance Languages at Colgate University. Mason Jones entered the Curtis Institute of Music in 1935 at the age of sixteen. At Curtis, Jones studied with Anton Horner, horn and also with Marcel Tabuteau, who, though an oboe, was a gifted teacher of performance. While still a student at Curtis, Mason Jones was engaged for the Philadelphia Orchestra by Eugene Ormandy in 1938. Mason Jones graduated from Curtis in the Class of 1938. Beginning in 1939, Jones was Principal horn in the two seasons 1939-1940 and 1940-1941, after which he entered the US Army. While in the Army, Mason Jones was Principal horn of the U.S. Marine Band in Washington, D.C. When Mason Jones returned from his World War 2 service, he found himself in a competition with James Chambers for the Principal horn position of the Philadelphia Orchestra. Jones prevailed, and James Chambers instead went on to a successful career with the New York Philharmonic. In 1946, Mason Jones also returned to the Curtis Institute, and in 1970, he was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Music from Colgate University. Mason Jones has been the personnel manager of the Philadelphia Orchestra since 1963. He co-founded the Philadelphia Brass Ensemble (see photo below). Mason Jones died on February 19, 2009 in Gladwyne, suburban Philadelphia.
Robert Fires with his 'other instrument', the bagpipe with daughter Laura Fries in 1971
Robert Fries was born on January 11, 1932 in Ann Arbor, Michigan, of a prosperous family, son of Charles C. Fries (1887-1967), University of Michigan professor and founder of the English Language Institute at the University 115. Robert Fries studied horn at the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia with Mason Jones, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Music degree in 1957 116. Robert Fries later played horn in the US Marine Band, and the New Orleans Philharmonic and the Detroit Symphony. Then, for two seasons, Robert Fries played horn with the Philadelphia Orchestra as co-Principal with his teacher, Mason Jones. Robert Fries, following the Philadelphia Orchestra went on to a successful teaching career at the Oberlin Conservatory of Music. His wife, Susan Fries also taught flute at the Oberlin Conservatory. Susan and Robert's children, Robert, Laura, and David studied cello and violin 113. Robert Fries also played horn during the summers at the Grand Teton Music Festival in Wyoming. While teaching, Robert Fries was active in the Oberlin Woodwind Quintet. As a hobby, Robert Fries developed his skills playing the Scottish bagpipe, and organized a bagpipe band at Oberlin 114. He was also the teacher of Robert Ward, later associate Principal horn of the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra, and now at University of California, Berkeley.
Nolan Miller photo: Philadelphia Orchestra Association
Nolan Miller was born in Hamburg in rural eastern Pennsylvania in 1939 118. Nolan Miller early was recognized as gifted child and was trained in piano and solfège. His piano abilities were such that he considered a career as a concert pianist. In about 1957, Nolan Miller won a local piano competition and performed the Beethoven Fourth Piano Concerto with the Reading Symphony in about 1960. Horn and piano were his double major during his first year of at Lebanon Valley College, a small liberal arts college a few miles from his home. At Lebanon Valley, Nolan Miller he studied horn with Gail Weimer, former Third horn of the Chicago Symphony and James Thurmond 117. Nolan Miller then entered the Curtis Institute, where he studied with his famous predecessor and horn teacher, Mason Jones. Miller graduated from Curtis in the Class of 1965 and joined the Philadelphia Orchestra horn section in the 1965-1966 season. In the 1966-1967 season, following the departure of Robert Fries, Nolan Miller was Associate Principal horn, sitting next to Principal Mason Jones. Nolan Miller and Mason Jones, close friends as well as orchestra colleagues played together for 14 seasons. Then, upon the retirement of Mason Jones at the end of the 1977-1978 season, Nolan Miller became Principal horn of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1978-1979 season. Nolan Miller was horn of the Philadelphia Orchestra for 40 seasons, from 1965-1978, under Ormandy, Riccardo Muti, Wolfgang Sawallisch and Christoph Eschenbach until he retired at the end of the 2004-2005 season. Nolan Miller was also active in summer festivals, including the Jackson Hole, Wyoming summer festival.
Jennifer Montone was born in Virginia in 1974. While living in the Washington D.C. area in her teenage years, Jennifer Montone studied with Edwin Thayer, principal horn of the National Symphony. Jennifer Montone was then admitted to the Juilliard School, where she studied with Julie Landsman, principal horn of the Metropolitan Opera, gaining her BMus in about 1997. Earlier in her career, Jennifer Montone was third horn of the New Jersey Symphony. While in the New Jersey - New York area, she performed regularly with the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, with the Orpheus Chamber Orchestra, and the New York Philharmonic. She was a substitute musician for several Broadway shows. Then in 2000, Jennifer Montone was selected as the Associate Principal horn of the Dallas Symphony under Andrew Litton. She was Principal horn in Dallas for three seasons, 2000-2003, at which time she also taught at Southern Methodist University. After Dallas, Jennifer Montone was appointed Principal horn of the Saint Louis Symphony 2003-2008. Jennifer Montone won the competition to become Principal horn of the Philadelphia Orchestra in 2008, and entered the Orchestra in the 2008-2009 season, succeeding Nolan Miller. In this role, she carries on the long and distinguished Philadelphia horn tradition. Jennifer Montone has also been active in chamber music, including festivals, playing in the Bay Chamber Concerts - Maine, Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center, La Jolla Chamber Music Festival - California, Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival - New Mexico, Bellingham Music Festival - Washington, Spoleto Chamber Music Festival - Italy and the Marlboro Music Festival - Vermont. Jennifer Montone is said usually to play either a Rauch Model 1 or a Conn 8D model horn.
Philadelphia Brass Ensemble in 1959: Mason Jones Principal horn, Abe Torchinsky Tuba, Gilbert Johnson Principal trumpet, Charles Henry Smith Principal trombone, Seymour Rosenfeld Assistant Principal trumpet
Principal Trumpets of the Philadelphia Orchestra
Frederick Wagner was the first Principal trumpet of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1900-1901 season. He may have been part of the prior Thunder Orchestra that was folded into the Philadelphia Orchestra in it first season. Frederick Wagner continued to live in Philadelphia at least until 1919.
August Bender may have been born in Germany in 1852. August Bender was in the trumpet section in the Philadelphia Orchestra under Fritz Scheel for two seasons, 1901-1902 and 1902-1903. Bender was Principal trumpet for the first of these two seasons and Third trumpet under the leadership of Paul Handke in 1902-1903. Because of the lack of any other public record of August Bender in the US found so far, other than his brief time with the Philadelphia Orchestra, it seems likely that Bender came to Philadelphia during each of these two seasons, and then returned to Europe each summer, as was the practice in that era. He likely continued to pursue his career in Germany.
Paul Handke was born in Vienna, Austria November 23, 1867, where he also studied. At age 24, Paul Handke was trumpet at the Munich Hofoper for five seasons 1894-1899. At that time, he studied with his orchestra colleague Albert Meichelt Sr. (1850-1914) 189, who was also later his father-in-law. Handke was first trumpet in the Vienna Hofoper Orchestra and in the related Vienna Philharmonic in the 1899-1900 season 190 when Gustav Mahler was Vienna's conductor. Paul Handke emigrated to the U.S. in 1901, perhaps invited by Fritz Scheel to join the Philadelphia Orchestra. At that time, Handke also brought with him his hand transcriptions of the Haydn Trumpet Concerto in E flat major composed in 1796. Handke joined the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1901-1902 season, and became Principal the following season 1902-1903. At this time, Handke also played in the Spring Bethlehem Bach Festival one hour outside Philadelphia. He played in the Cincinnati May Festival in 1903. Paul Handke then joined the Chicago Symphony Orchestra under Theodore Thomas in the 1903-1904 season. Handke was Principal trumpet in Chicago 1903-1907. Following the death of Theodore Thomas and the accession of Frederick Stock, Stock decided to appoint Otto Schubert as Chicago Principal trumpet in 1907-1908. Paul Handke then moved to the second trumpet position where he served for five additional seasons from 1907-1912. During the period 1912-1916, Paul Handke was a musician in Chicago playing among other groups as a substitute with the Chicago Opera Company 189. In the 1916-1917 season, Paul Handke rejoined the Chicago Symphony as Librarian and trumpet. From 1926-1933, Paul Handke was also second Cornet, the fifth chair position in the Chicago Symphony trumpet section. He retired from the orchestra at the end of the 1942-1943 season just before his 76th birthday. During the Chicago Symphony years, Paul Handke also performed outside the Chicago Symphony. Prior to World War 1, Handke played summer season tours with the Ballmann Symphonic Band under Martin Ballmann. By 1920 Handke was also a part-time theater musician in Chicago, and played with various entertainment groups. Paul Handke's service in Chicago, although not continuous, covered 36 seasons. Paul Handke died in Chicago on February 14, 1944.
Max Bleyer in 1909
Max Bleyer was born in Germany in 1869. He played in orchestras in Leipzig and in Hamburg in the 1890s. In 1903, Philadelphia Orchestra conductor Fritz Scheel recruited Max Bleyer to come to Philadelphia as Principal trumpet succeeding Paul Handke. After serving as Principal trumpet in the 1903-1904 season, Max Bleyer became second trumpet for four further seasons 1904-1908. During summers in this period, Max Bleyer also also played in summer music festivals with the Boston Festival Orchestra under Boston Musician Emil Mollenhauer. The Boston Festival Orchestra was made up of Boston, New York and Philadelphia orchestral musicians. Max Blayer was also later New York Philharmonic trumpet. By 1907, Max Bleyer was teaching at the Juilliard School (then known as the Institute of Musical Studies). He also taught at the Guilmant Organ School in New York City in 1912 250. Harry Glantz was among Max Bleyer's students. Max Bleyer died in New York City in 1936, age 69.
Herman Basse was born in Goslar, near Hanover, Germany in February 18, 1866 and emigrated to the U.S. in 1893 with his wife Johannah and baby daughter to New York City, becoming a citizen in 1902. From 1899-1904, Basse was Principal trumpet with the New York Philharmonic. During the 1904-1905 season, Basse was Principal Trumpet of the Philadelphia Orchestra under Fritz Scheel. With the next season, 1905-1906 and until the end of the 1911-1912 season, he was again solo trumpet with the Metropolitan Opera orchestra. In the 1914-1915 season, Basse again joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as his Principal trumpet under Leopold Stokowski. After that season, Basse then remained with the Orchestra 1915-1917, bur relinquished the first chair trumpet position of the Philadelphia Orchestra to Harry Glantz . In 1917, Basse left the Philadelphia Orchestra, and went to the Detroit Symphony trumpet section. Basse later retired to Florida where he lived at least until 1937.
Gustav Heim was born in Schleusingen, Thüringen, Germany, 150 km East of Frankfurt on May 8, 1879. Heim studied trumpet first under his father, and then at the local music school in Schleusingen from 1893-1897. In 1897, Heim was cornet solo of the military band based in Thüringen. Heim emigrated to the U.S. in 1904 to St. Louis. During his career, Heim was first trumpet for an amazing number of leading U.S. orchestras. Heim started in 1904 with the orchestra of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition (also known as the 1904 St. Louis World Fair). In St. Louis, Fritz Scheel, conductor of the Philadelphia Orchestra heard Gustav Heim play. As a result, in the 1905-1906 season, Heim became Principal trumpet of the Philadelphia Orchestra, while his predecessor, Herman Basse returned to the Metropolitan Opera. Gustav Heim stayed in Philadelphia for one season.
Gustav Heim continued his itinerant care by moving on to the Boston Symphony Orchestra in the 1906-1907 season as third trumpet. Heim remained third trumpet until, in the 1914-1915 season, under Karl Muck, Heim became Principal Trumpet. He remained in the first trumpet chair of the Boston Symphony until 1920. In the 1920 disastrous Boston Symphony musician’s strike, Heim was, along with the Concertmaster Frederic Fradkin, one of the two Orchestra Principals who left the Boston Symphony as a result of the strike. Heim departed for the Detroit Symphony, where he was Principal trumpet 1920-1921. Georges Mager then took over Heim’s first chair trumpet position with the Boston Symphony. After moving to Detroit for one season, Gustav Heim then moved to New York, where he was Principal trumpet with the Philharmonic Society for two seasons 1921-1923 under Josef Stransky. Continuing his movements from orchestra to orchestra, in the 1923-1924 season, Heim moved to the Cleveland Orchestra under Nikolai Sokoloff (1886-1965). Then, Gustav Heim moved back to New York to join the New York Symphony from 1925-1928 under Walter Damrosch (who had also conducted Heim at the 1904 St. Louis Fair). After the merger of the New York Symphony with the New York Philharmonic Society in 1928, Harry Glantz was selected to continue as Principal trumpet of the merged orchestra. Glanz had previously studied with Heim. Gustav Heim then joined the American Symphonic Ensemble in New York which was an orchestra without a conductor for the 1929-1930 season. He was also a regular at the long-lived Worcester Music Festival (Massachusetts) in the summers from 1910-1914, 1916, and 1925 to 1932. Gustav Heim also taught in New York City, and among his famous students were William Vacchiano. During most of his career, Gustav Heim played a was a Bb trumpet. Gustav Heim died relatively young on October 30, 1933 in New York City after a sudden illness, aged only 54.
Christian Rodenkirchen was born in Hennef, 30 km south of Cologne, Germany on February 19, 1858. Rodenkirchen played cornet in a regimental band in Cologne in 1883 27. Shortly thereafter, Christian Rodenkirchen emigrated to the US, and seems to have settled first in the Chicago area. During his constantly changing career Rodenkirchen was first trumpet of a number of leading American Orchestras from 1891 to 1915. In 1890, he was a member of a mid-west touring orchestra, the Aamold Concert Company, conducted by August Aamold (1863-after 1930). Rodenkirchen joined the trumpet section at the founding of the Chicago Symphony in the 1891-1892 season as first cornet. Rodenkirchen was first cornet and then Principal trumpet of the Chicago Symphony for eleven seasons, 1891-1902. He then seems to have had a falling-out with Theodore Thomas, and Rodenkirchen's contract for the next season was not renewed. Rodenkirchen then became Principal trumpet of the New York Symphony during the 1903-1904 season under Walter Damrosch. The next season, Rodenkirchen became Principal Trumpet of the Metropolitan Opera for the 1904-1905 season. Continuing his peripatetic career journey, Christian Rodenkirchen then joined the New York Philharmonic as first trumpet from 1905-1907. In New York in 1907, Rodenkirchen married his second wife, Mary McNally, 20 years younger.
Christian Rodenkirchen with wife Mary McNally in about 1910
He moved to the Philadelphia Orchestra for two seasons as Principal trumpet under Karl Pohlig 1907-1909. Rodenkirchen then returned to the New York Philharmonic (it would seem as first trumpet) from 1909-1911 during the years of Gustav Mahler as Music Director 27. Rodenkirchen then returned to the Philadelphia Orchestra as second trumpet from 1911 until his early death on February 6, 1915, just days before his 57th birthday. Because of his early death, Christian Rodenkirchen did not finish the Philadelphia Orchestra 1914-1915 season, ending his restless career. Christian Rodenkirchen, through his many students was, like Max Schlossberg (1873-1936), an early creator of what became to be considered an American school of trumpet playing 26.
Henri Le Barbier was born in 1873 in the Alsace-Lorraine area, then part of Germany and returned to France following World War 1. Le Barbier was Principal trumpet of the Concertgebouw Orchestra 1904-1909. Le Barbier then moved to the U.S. to join the Philadelphia Orchestra in the 1909-1910 season upon the departure of Christian Rodenkirchen for the New York Philharmonic. Le Barbier remained Principal trumpet in Philadelphia until 1914. He then became Principal trumpet of the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra 1920-1921, and 1923-1936.
Hersch "Harry" Glantz was born in what was then Proskuriv, in the Ukraine in Russia (now named Khmelnytskyi, in the Ukraine) on 1 January 1896. He emigrated to the US with his family at age 4 in 1900. His family followed his father, Pincus Glantz (1866-1939), who had traveled to New York City nine months earlier. Harry's family was musical, his father Pincus Glantz being a violinist, but unfortunately had to earn his living mostly as a cloth cutter, although he also played in theater orchestras. Harry's uncle Nathan Glantz played saxophone. Harry Glantz studied trumpet with Jacob Borodkin beginning at age 9. He also later studied with a series of leading orchestral trumpets, including Max Bleyer, Christian Rodenkirchen, and Gustav Heim, all of whom were at various times Principal trumpet of the Philadelphia Orchestra and of other orchestras. Harry Glantz was also a student of the famous trumpet teacher Max Schlossberg (1873-1936), who after emigrating from Russia became a long-term trumpet teacher at the New York Institute of Musical Art (predecessor of the Julliard School) and New York Philharmonic trumpet. Max Schlossberg is often called the '...father of the American School of trumpet playing...' 129. From 1911-1915, Harry Glantz was Principal trumpet of the New York-based Russian Symphony Orchestra Society, which was a training ground for many leading U.S. orchestral players. During much of 1915, Harry was in San Francisco, California as Principal trumpet at the San Francisco Exposition Orchestra. Beginning with the 1915-1916 season and also for half of the next season, Harry Glantz was Principal trumpet of the Philadelphia Orchestra. In December, 1917, Glantz was drafted into the U.S. Marine Band, and discharged in 1919 at the end of World War 1. From 1919-1922, Harry Glantz was Principal trumpet of the New York Symphony. Then, in 1922, Glantz moved back to San Francisco where he was Principal of the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra during the 1922-1923 season. Harry Glantz said that San Francisco conductor Alfred Hertz urged him to remain with the Orchestra, since only with brass of this quality could Hertz perform Wagner as it should be done. Glantz instead moved back to New York to be with his parents 128.
Harry Glantz (left) with New York trumpet colleagues Nat Prager, William Vacchiano, Sol Lubin in 1939 at Lewison Stadium in New York City
Harry Glantz went to the New York Philharmonic as Principal trumpet for 14 seasons, 1928-1942. In 1942, Harry Glantz then went on to become the Arturo Toscanini's Principal trumpet at the NBC Symphony, where he stayed until the Symphony disbanded in 1954, but continued with the renamed NBC Symphony, the "Symphony of the Air" at least in 1953-1954. In 1958, Harry Glantz retired to Bay Harbor, Florida. Harry Glantz taught a number of orchestral musicians, including his nephew Philip Fisher (born Fischberg), Assistant Principal trumpet of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1944-1945 and Principal of the Radio City Music Hall for many seasons. Glantz also taught Seymour Rosenfeld and Frank Kaderabek of the Philadelphia Orchestra and David Zauder of the Cleveland Orchestra. Beginning in 1972 until his death, Glantz taught trumpet at the University of Miami Graduate School of Music. Harry Glantz died in Bay Harbor, Florida 18 December 1982 at age 86 after a rich and varied career at the top of his profession.
Ernest (in his band uniform) and wife Catherine Williams about 1911
Ernest Williams, known by his students as "the Chief", was born September 27, 1881 in Richmond, Wayne County, Indiana. After early study with his father, Williams studied in Boston in 1899 with musicians Henry C. Brown and Gustave Strube. Strube was Boston Symphony violin and conductor of the Boston Pops and taught several different instruments. Ernest Williams also studied with legendary cornetist Herbert L. Clarke, long with the Sousa Band, one time Metropolitan Opera trumpet (1899-1900 season), and a life-long friend of Ernest Williams. In 1899, at age 18, during the Spanish-American War, Williams joined the Indiana Regiment Band. From 1900-1902. Williams played with numerous bands (including Innes’ Band, Liberati’s Band, and the Sousa’s Band). In late 1901 and early 1902, Williams toured with the Sousa Band in England. For the next ten years, Williams played in a series of U.S. bands: 1903-1906, the Martland Band of Boston, and 1907-1910, he conducted the Boston Cadet Band. In later years often referred to himself as a "bandmaster". In 1911, he married a cornet soloist, Catherine Rankin, and together they made an international tour 1913-1914. 1915-1916, he was solo cornet with the Franko Band In 1916, he played in the Diaghilev Ballet Russe American tour under Pierre Monteux. Although Williams was never particularly attracted to orchestral playing, in the following year, he joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as solo trumpet, where he remained until 1923. During his Philadelphia years, Williams continued to play with the Goldman Band in New York City. Williams taught at Ithaca College in 1929-1930 and 1937-1946 at the New York Institute of Musical Art (Juilliard). Williams retained his primary residence in Brooklyn, NY from about 1900 until the late 1930s. In 1931, he created what he named the "Ernest Williams School of Music" in Brooklyn, which he continued until 1943, when WW2 took most of his students. The school also had a very effective summer camp, the Ernest Williams Music Camp on property Williams owned in the New York Catskills at Saugerties, NY in which instructors of all brass families would tutor the students. For example, Seymour Rosenfeld, long-time trumpet with the Philadelphia Orchestra was a the Ernest Williams Summer Camp in 1936, 1937, and 1938. Williams beginning in 1936 taught at the State University of New York until 1943. He died in Saugerties, NY on February 10, 1947. Over the years, Ernest Williams had many trumpet students, and was considered a demanding and gifted instructor. Williams also published a series of trumpet method books still widely used in trumpet instruction.
Saul Caston with behind him Eugene Ormandy (partially blocked), and Arturo Toscanini in 1940
Saul Caston was born Solomon Gusikoff Cohen on August 22, 1901 in New York City, his mother coming from the musical Gusikoff-Borodkin family. By 1912 at age 11, Saul was a student of the famous trumpet teacher Max Schlossberg (1873-1936) of the Russian (or Russian Jewish) school of trumpet playing, who at that time played in the New York Philharmonic, and who later taught at the New York Institute of Musical Art (Juilliard). Max Schlossberg had relocated to the U.S. in about 1902, and is considered by many to be the founder of the American style of orchestral trumpet playing 26. Saul Caston also studied conducting with Abram Chasins27. As mentioned above, Harry Glantz was also a Schlossberg student, as was Seymour Rosenfeld, second trumpet of the Philadelphia Orchestra from 1946-1988. Saul joined the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1918, and then became Principal in the 1923-1924 season, in which position he continued until 1945. He became Associate Conductor of the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1936, and from 1941 until 1944 Caston became conductor of the Reading Symphony Orchestra, a small orchestra of suburban Philadelphia. This conducting experience lead to his appointment as conductor of the Denver Symphony Orchestra for 19 seasons, 1945-1964. (The Denver Symphony later became the Colorado Symphony Orchestra in 1989.) Saul Caston died in Winston-Salem, North Carolina on July 28, 1970.
Gilbert Johnson, Seymour Rosenfeld, Donald McComas, Samuel Krauss (right) in 1969
Samuel Krauss was born in Salem, Ohio December 3, 1909 of parents who had emigrated from Hungary. At age 12, Krauss began study with Saul Caston at the Curtis Institute. Sam Krauss as a teenager played with several Philadelphia bands, before graduating from Curtis in the Class of 1934. Kraus then became Principal trumpet in the National Symphony Orchestra of Washington, D.C. for one season in 1935-1936. (The National Symphony was noted for its high turn-over of musicians, said to be the consequence of low salaries and the acerbic criticism of the Music Director and former Philadelphia Orchestra cellist Hans Kindler ). Samuel Krauss then went to the Saint Louis Symphony where he was Principal trumpet from for eight seasons 1936-1944, leaving during the 1943-1944 season to go to Philadelphia. In Saint Louis, Samuel Krauss was followed by Seymour Rosenfeld who also later joined the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1946. In 1944, during the 1943-1944 season, Samuel Krauss joined the Philadelphia Orchestra trumpet section, but he seems to have taken over the first chair trumpet responsibilities from Saul Caston during early 1945 156. Samuel Krauss was officially named Principal trumpet of the Philadelphia Orchestra the next season 1945-1946. Samuel Krauss was remained Principal trumpet of the Philadelphia Orchestra until the 1957-1958 season, when Eugene Ormandy decided to make a change. In the next season 1958-1959, Samuel Krauss was named Co-Principal with his student Gilbert Johnson. Samuel Krauss remained with the Philadelphia Orchestra trumpet section as Co-Principal trumpet from 1958-1968 and as fourth trumpet 1968-1974. However, orchestra records show that Sam Krauss but did not complete the 1973-1974 season, and resigned from the orchestra in December, 1973. Samuel Krauss also taught at the Curtis Institute for 21 seasons, 1947-1968. Among his students was Gilbert Johnson , his future successor. Krauss was a famous trainer and instructor, and taught at the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, at Temple University in Philadelphia, and at the University of Michigan, as well as at Curtis. Sam Krauss moved to Evanston, Illinois in 1982, where he died on May 18, 1992.
Gilbert Johnson, center, holds the 1967 Grammy won by the Philadelphia Brass Ensemble
back row: Abe Torchinsky, tuba, Glenn Dodson, Principal trombone, M. Dee Stewart, trombone, Tyrone Breuninger trombone
front row: Mason Jones, Principal horn, Gilbert Johnson, Principal trumpet, Seymour Rosenfeld trumpet
Gilbert Johnson was born on September 10, 1927. Johnson studied at the Hartt School of Music at the University of Hartford graduating with BMus. He then studied at the Curtis Institute, studying with Samuel Krauss, whom he later succeeded as Principal trumpet of the Phildalelphia Orchestra. Gilbert Johnson graduated from Curtis in the Class of 1950. After Curtis, Gilbert Johnson was Principal trumpet of the New Orleans Philharmonic. Gilbert Johnson joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as Co-Principal trumpet in 1958, just before the Philadelphia Orchestra began their May-June tour in Europe, including Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Gilbert Johnson sat at the first trumpet stand with his Curtis teacher Samuel Krauss. In the next season, Sam Krauss and Gilbert Johnson switched positions, with Gilbert Johnson becoming Principal trumpet in 1959-1960. Gilbert Johnson served the Philadelphia Orchestra for seventeen seasons until the end of 1974-1975. After retiring from the Philadelphia Orchestra at the end of the 1974-1975 season, Gilbert Johnson was Professor of Trumpet at the University of Miami 1975 until his death in 2002. During his initial retirement years in South Florida, Gilbert Johnson was also Principal trumpet with the Florida Philharmonic. Gilbert Johnson sadly died of kidney cancer on September 8, 2002 in Miami, age 74.
Frank Kaderabek was born in May, 1929 in Chicago. His parents emigrated from Czechoslovakia in 1921. In 1938, he began trumpet study with a local Czech-background teacher. In about 1945, Kaderabek began study at the Chicago Musical College, and also played in the youth training orchestra: the Chicago Civic Orchestra. At that time in Chicago, he studied with Adolph 'Bud' Herseth of the Chicago Symphony. In 1950, with the beginning of the Korean War, Kaderabek joined the West Point Band (with Mel Broiles as solo trumpet). This led to him having access to New York City musicians, and Frank Kaderabek further studied Harry Glantz (New York Philharmonic and NBC Symphony Principal trumpet and Philadelphia Principal 1915-1917) and Nathan Prager (second trumpet of the New York Philharmonic). Frank Kaderabek then joined the trumpet section of the Dallas Symphony in about 1952, where he remained for five seasons. During the summers at this time, Kaderabek played with the Grant Park Symphony concerts in Chicago. Kaderabek says he was playing a Eldon Benge B flat trumpet all during this period. He switched to a C trumpet beginning in Chicago 59. After playing as an extra for a Fritz Reiner La Mer recording, and after Reiner firing the CSO third trumpet, Frank Kaderabek was hired by Reiner as third trumpet 59. Kaderabek remained at the Chicago Symphony 1958-1966, under Fritz Reiner and Jean Martinon. This led to Frank Kaderabek then being appointed Principal trumpet of the Detroit Symphony from about 1966-1975. Then, in 1975 he was appointed Principal trumpet of the Philadelphia Orchestra, under Eugene Ormandy, suceeding long-time Principal trumpet Gilbert Johnson.
David Bilger was born in Wisconsin in 1961. In a 1993 interview 146, Bilger said "...[I] started playing cornet in the band in fourth grade, along with almost every other kid in the school district of Brookfield, Wisconsin..." Bilger studied with Dennis Najoom of the Milwaukee Symphony in High School and David Hickman at the University of Illinois gaining his BMus. After admission to the Juilliard School, David Bilger studied with Mark Gould who was Principal trumpet of the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra. Mark Gould was also with David Bigler a founder of the the New York Trumpet Ensemble, a brass chamber group. The Ensemble consists of Thomas Bontrager, a classically trained trumpet musician who frequently plays jazz, Scott Thornburg Principal trumpet of several orchestras, including New York City Symphony and the Orchestra of St. Lukes, David Bilger and Mark Gould who was Principal trumpet of the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra 1974-2003. Click on the thumbnail below to see an early picture of the New York Trumpet Ensemble, with the musicians listed above shown left to right.
After gaining his MMus at Juilliard, David Bilger was the first-prize winner of the 1985 Concert Artists Guild International Competition. In the summer of 1990, David Bilger played in the summer season of the New York Philharmonic. Starting in 1988, David Bilger joined the Dallas Symphony, first as Co-Principal trumpet, and moving into the Principal chair 1991-1995. In 1995, David Bilger won the competition to become Principal trumpet of the Philadelphia Orchestra, succeeding Frank Kaderabek, and continuing the long tradition of excellence of the Philadelphia trumpet section. As well as his responsibilities as section head, Bilger acts as chairman of the artistic committee of the Philadelphia Orchestra. David Bilger is also a composer, such as Point/Counterpoint, a work for trumpet, horn and piano showing the expressive possibilities of the trumpet. His wife Angela Cordell Bilger is a horn player who has also played with the Philadelphia Orchestra. David Bilger has been particularly active in teaching. He joined the faculty of the Hugh Hodgson School of Music at the University of Georgia 2011-2013, while continuing his program teaching at the Curtis Institute and at the Boyer College of Music - Temple University. At the same time, continuing his full schedule with the Philadelphia Orchestra. David Bilger has recorded a number of CDs. Of particular note is First Chairs, a CD of music of Samuel Adler (1928- ), also of the Juilliard School, featuring extended solo music performed by some of the most famous Principals of US orchestras, including Bilger. One of my favorites is a recording of the Brandenburg Concerto no 2, with Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center on a CMS CD with exciting and stylish playing of the difficult trumpet part --- the set is one of the finest Brandenburg recordings available.
Trombones_and_Tubas of the Philadelphia Orchestra
The "Low Bass" of the Philadelphia Orchestra have a history of distinction, particularly beginning with the tenure of Leopold Stokowski in 1912. The so-called "Philadelphia Sound" which Stokowski created, and which Eugene Ormandy, in his unique way continued, is not only the rich string sound and legato style typical of the orchestra. It also begins with the low bass sonority of the orchestra. This bass sound then builds through the stings and the high brass and woodwinds producing rich, integrated sound sometimes called the "Philadelphia Sound". Although many said that Riccardo Muti changed (a few detractors said destroyed) this sound, yet it continues today, heard in each concert.
A section devoted to the Trombones_and_Tubas of the Philadelphia Orchestra since 1900 will be added here soon.
Eric Carlson, second trombone, Nitzan Haroz, Principal trombone, Matt Vaughn, Associate Principal trombone, Blair Bollinger, Bass trombone, (l to r) the great Philadelphia Orchestra trombone choir.
Gold and Silver, passing the baton (or tuba), Paul Krzywicki, Principal tuba of the Philadelphia Orchestra 1972-2005, and Carol Jantsch, Principal tuba named in 2006, both doing some "heavy lifting"
Timpani_and_Percussion of the Philadelphia Orchestra
Eugene Ormandy and the Philadelphia percussion section:
Ormandy: "Percussion - a little louder"
Percussion: "We don't have anything"
Ormandy: "That's right, play it louder please..."
The Philadelphia Orchestra has a history of leadership in its Principal timpani and in its percussion section second to none. A section on the percussion of the orchestra will be added here soon.
Don Luzzi, timpani
Pay and Working Conditions of the Philadelphia Orchestra.
During the Twentieth Century, pay and working conditions for the musicians of major U.S. symphony orchestras has gradually improved. However, for the first half of the century, the working life of even the leading American orchestra musician was "terrible hard". The concert season prior to World War 1 was only about 20 weeks even for the musicians of leading U.S. orchestras. In 1901, the Philadelphia Orchestra season was of 20 weeks, with 71 concerts 63. That same year, the Boston Symphony Orchestra season was 24 weeks 80. In 1930, the New York Philharmonic and the Philadelphia Orchestra each had a 30-week seasons. Then, in 1930, supporters of the Philadelphia Orchestra decided to create an 8 week summer program for the Philadelphia Orchestra at reduced prices. This program was located in a new amphitheater, called "Robin Hood Dell", in Fairmount Park, in western Philadelphia. This brought the musicians closer to full employment, but still only 38 of 52 weeks.
Before World War 2, many musicians in the leading U.S. orchestras were from Europe. These musicians took a ship to the US typically in mid-September, leaving their families behind. They stayed in a rooming house or shared apartments with colleagues, and then sailed back to Europe in May. They spent the summers with their families and perhaps playing the the summer beer garden orchestras where food and drink were sold in an outdoor atmosphere. They would then board the boat for the US in September.
Gradually, during the 1910s, 1920s, and 1930s, American musicians began to fill the leading orchestras. This was particularly the case after about 1920 when US music conservatories such as the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia, and the Institute of Musical Art (later Juilliard) in New York began to train young musicians. However, in these years orchestra musicians still needed employment from May to September, when their orchestra would be silent. These musicians would also play at Summer festivals. Many Philadelphia Orchestra musicians played in the Bach Festival in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 70, which started the same year as the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1900. The Festival takes place in May. Some players also participated in the Cincinnati May Festival, and the Spring Festival in Ann Arbor, Michigan, or the many other spring festivals. In Boston, George W. Stewart, with Emil Mollenhauer organized the Boston Festival Orchestra, made up primarily of Boston Symphony Musicians, but with a number of Philadelphia musicians which played the summer festivals in the eastern United States in the 1890s and 1900s.
The Robin Hood Dell concerts in Philadelphia's Fairmount Park provided an additional 8 weeks of employment for Philadelphia Orchestra musicians. Also, the musicians' year increased with the expanded season of the Philadelphia Orchestra. Then, in 1966, a prolonged dispute and strike between the Philadelphia Orchestra musicians and the Orchestra Board lead to more sweeping changes.
The 1966 Philadelphia Orchestra Strike
The quest of major U.S. orchestras to gain year-around employment and improved benefits and pay reached a new peak in the first half of the 1960s. No U.S. orchestra, with the exception of Boston, had 52 week employment. Boston, with Koussevitzky's development of the festival at Tanglewood achieved a 52 week season in 1947. New York and Philadelphia had less. In Philadelphia, the working season by 1944 was still only 32 weeks 60, plus an additional 8 weeks with the Robin Hood Dell concerts.
By 1960, the Philadelphia Orchestra season had extended to about 42 weeks. By 1960 also, orchestra musicians across the country were seeking better salaries, year-around employment, medical benefits, and more protection against sudden, arbitrary dismissal. However, orchestra Boards, who tended to be run by wealthy civic-minded individuals regarded the orchestra musicians as artists. The had trouble thinking of the orchestra musicians as workers who might strike for better conditions.
Philadelphia was not an exception. After a series of fruitless and acrimonious negotiations, The Philadelphia Orchestra went on strike in strike in September, 1966. The 1966 strike lasted 58 days. One major consequence of the eventual 1966 settlement was, for the first time, the Philadelphia Orchestra had 52 week employment for its musicians.
As a flavor of what this meant to the musicians, Robert Harper, bass trombone with the Philadelphia Orchestra for 38 seasons 1943-1981 said: "...when we finally went to a 52 week season, I was able to start saving money..." 164.
This resulted in further changes. Since the musicians were paid in the Summer, the Philadelphia Orchestra Association sought to add Summer concerts. This was achieved by the annual addition of the Philadelphia Orchestra to the Summer festival at the Saratoga Performing Arts Center, in up-state New York. For the first time, the musicians of the Philadelphia Orchestra were guaranteed a 52 week season 64.
However, this was not the end of tensions and confrontations between the Philadelphia Orchestra and the Orchestra Association. The economic pressures experienced by U.S. orchestras, and still existing today, resulted in clashes each decade after 1966. The Philadelphia Orchestra went on strike in September, 1990, causing cancellation of the opening night concert. Much of the negotiations then dealt with medical insurance, pensions, vacation, and topics such as "string leave", as much as with base salary levels. The Philadelphia Orchestra musicians also briefly walked out in 2004. In 2009, the musicians accepted temporary pay cuts to help reduced the economic stress which the Orchestra was still experiencing.
Even today, Orchestra seasons for regional orchestras remain well below an annual employment. For example, the orchestra contract for the Alabama Symphony Orchestra in 2009 is 41 weeks. The North Carolina Symphony employment is for 44 weeks.
Philadelphia Orchestra 2011 Bankruptcy
In October, 2009, the Philadelphia Orchestra Association announced that Allison Vulgamore had been appointed President and CEO of the Philadelphia Orchestra Association beginning in 2010 216. The new administration initiated a series of changes for the Orchestra. The Philadelphia Orchestra had been experiencing financial difficulties in part due to dropping attendance at Kimmel Center 211. On Saturday, April 16, 2011, the Philadelphia Orchestra filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 11, after Allison Vulgamore had alerted other symphony orchestras of the action 210. The five musicians on the orchestra board voted against the bankruptcy 210. News reports stated "...The symphony became the first [major] U.S. orchestra to seek Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection..." 233.
In November 29, 2011 207, the bankruptcy court allowed the Philadelphia Orchestra Association to transfer its defined benefit pension obligations for musicians and staff to a Federal agency: the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation 208. This agency takes over the pension obligations of defined benefit programs from "distressed" single payers. With this change, the Federal agency took over responsibility for the Orchestra's defined benefit pension payments, relieving the Philadelphia Orchestra Association from its obligations. Because of the limits on the maximum pension benefit currently guaranteed by the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, retired Philadelphia Orchestra musicians will receive a significantly smaller pension than what had been negotiated with the musicians by the Philadelphia Orchestra Association over the years 234. Various factors apply, but as an example, in 2014, a Philadelphia Orchestra musician retiring at age 65 would likely receive, under the limits of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation about $4,500 per month, or perhaps less 234. The orchestra also withdrew from the American Federation of Musicians and Employers Pension Fund 207, 209 in October 2011. Philadelphia Orchestra musicians also accepted a 15 percent salary cut 236.
In March, 2012, Allison Vulgamore's Philadelphia Orchestra contract was extended with "...an annual base salary of $450,000... [with] cash bonus of between $50,000 and $150,000 per year... [and] A retirement contribution of $125,000 per year, less applicable withholdings..."235. In 2012, also additional administrative personnel reporting to Vulgamore were appointed 212.
Principal Musicians of Major American Orchestras
There seems to be a surprising lack of historical information on the musicians of the leading orchestras of the United States. Consequently, out of my own interest I have compiled information on the musicians of the major U.S. orchestras listed below.
In most cases, this information is organized into to separate lists for each orchestra:
- First is a listing all the PRINCIPAL Musicians of that orchestra. This lists in chronological order all the Principal, or first-chair musicians of the orchestra page.
- Second is a listing of ALL the musicians of each orchestra since its creation.
Your added information or corrections about any of these orchestras or musicians would be welcome simply by contacting me as shown at the foot of this page.
If you have any comments or questions about this Leopold Stokowski site, please e-mail me (Larry Huffman) at e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
1 Appendix I. Ardoin, John, editor. The Philadelphia Orchestra, A Century of Music. Temple University Press. Philadelphia. 1999.
An excellent source of service information for Philadelphia Orchestra musicians since 1900.
2 page 395-396. Heiles, Anne Mischakoff. America's Concertmasters. Harmonie Park Press. Sterling Heights, MI. 2007. ISBN-13 978-0-89990-139-8
One of the few truly great books on Concertmasters and musicians of US orchestras. A wealth of information, carefully researched and entertainingly written.
3 photo: Rembrandt Studio, Philadelphia circa 1923
4 Page 59. Kupferberg, Herbert. Those Fabulous Philadelphians. Charles Scribner's Sons. New York. 1969. ISBN 0491003943. Page 297. Daniel, Oliver Stokowski A Counterpoint of View. Dodd, Mead & Company. New York 1982 ISBN 0-396-07936-9. page 398. Heiles, Anne Mischakoff. America's Concertmasters. Harmonie Park Press, Sterling Heights, Michigan. 2007. ISBN-13 978-0-89990-139-8.
5 Page 222-224. Gerson, Robert A. Music in Philadelphia . Theodore Presser Company. Philadelphia. 1940.
6 Page 600. Promenade Concerts. The Musical Times. London, UK. September 1, 1904. also Page 319. London Concerts. The Musical Times. London, UK. May 1, 1907
7 page 222. Saleskim, Gdal. Famous Musicians of a Wandering Race. Kessinger Publishing. 2006. ISBN 142862516X
8 page 196. Saleskim, op. cit.
9 page 396. Heiles, Anne Mischakoff. America's Concertmasters. Harmonie Park Press, Sterling Heights, Michigan. 2007. ISBN-13 978-0-89990-139-8.
10 page 6. White, John. Lionel Tertis: The First Great Virtuoso of the Viola Boydell Press. Rochester, 2006. ISBN 184383278X
11 page 247. Howe, Mark Antony De Wolfe The Boston Symphony Orchestra. The Atlantic Monthly Press. 1914.
12 page 101. Thomas, Theodore. Theodore Thomas, a Musical Autobiography A.C. McClurg & Co. Chicago 1905
13 Page 152. Gerson, Robert A. Music in Philadelphia Theodore Presser Co. Philadelphia. 1940.
14 page 386. The Strad (a Magazine) April, 1905, issue 180. London. 1905.
15 page 119. Mannes, David. Music Is My Faith - An Autobiography.
16 Shaw, Albert. Review of Reviews and World's Work 1911.
17 de Lorenzo, Leonardo. My Complete Story of the Flute: The Instrument, The Performer, The Music. Texas Tech University Press. Lubbock, Texas. 1992. ISBN 0-89672-277-5.
18 page 7. New York Times. February 24, 1907
19 page 31 Crissey, Harrington E. The Double Reed Volume 24 no 1 2001
20 Butterfield, Emily J. Professional Life and Pedigree of Clement Barone. PhD. Thesis, Ohio State University. 2003.
21 Cole, Robert F. Flutist Quarterly: "William M. Kincaid". Volume 21 no 1. Fall, 1995.
22 Bolig, John R. The Victor Black Label Discography 16000-17000 Series. Mainspring Press. Denver. 2007. ISBN 978-0-9772735-7-7.
Bolig, John R. The Victor Red Seal Discography Volume 1: Single-Sided Series (1903-1925). Mainspring Press. Denver, Colorado. 2004. ISBN 0-9671819-8-4
Bolig, John R. The Victor Red Seal Discography Volume 2: Double-Sided Series to 1930. Mainspring Press. Denver, Colorado. 2006. ISBN 0-9772735-5-5.
23 page 108. The Double Reed "An Interview with Matthew Ruggiero" volume 22 number 3.
24 Ericson, John. The Horn Call "The Double Horn and Its Invention in 1897". Volume 28 number 2 February, 1998
25 page 102. Lawson, Colin James. The Cambridge Companion to the Clarinet. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 1995. ISBN 0-52147668-2
26 Tarr, Edward H. (Stewart Carter, editor). East Meets West: The Russian Trumpet Tradition Historical Brass Society Series number 4. Pendragon Press, 2004. ISBN-13 978-1576470282
27 Keim, Friedel. Das grosse Buch der Trompete Instrument, Geschichte, Trompeterlexikon. Schott. Mainz, Germany. September, 2005. ISBN 3-7957-0560-4.
28 Page 21. Toff, Nancy. Monarch of the Flute: Georges Barrère (1876-1944).
29 Page 119. Mannes, David. Music is my Faith - An Autobiography Norton. New York. Reprinted 1978. ISBN 0-306-77595-6
30 Schoenbach, Sol Ferdinand Del Negro (1897-1986) - Remembrances... The Double Reed, Volume 9 number 2. Fall 1986.
31 Rose, William Ganson Cleveland, the Making of a City. Kent State University Press. 1990. ISBN 0-87338-4288
32 The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. Cleveland 1997.
33 page 8. Soares, Janet Mansfield Louis Horst, Musician in a Dancer's World. Duke University Press. 1992. ISBN 0-82231-2263
35 page 195-196 Burgess, Geoffrey and Haynes, Bruce The Oboe Yale University Press. 2004. ISBN 0-30009-3179
36 page 29. Wells, Katherine Gladney Symphony & Song - The Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra Patrice Press. Tucson, Arizona. 1993. ISBN 1-880397-02-1
37 Programs of the Buffalo Philharmonic Society for the Season. Buffalo Philharmonic Society. Buffalo, NY. 1885.
38 Time Magazine Apr. 27, 1936
39 page 27. Dickson, Harry Ellis. "Gentlemen, More Dolce Please !". Beacon Press. Boston. 1974. ISBN 0-8070-5178-0.
40 page 251-252. Ewen, David. Dictators of the Baton. Alliance Book Corporation. Chicago. 1943.
41 Wister, Frances Anne. Twenty-five years of the Philadelphia orchestra (1900-25) Edward Stern & Co. Philadelphia. 1925
42 page 503. Howard, John Tasker. Our American music: three hundred years of it. Third Edition. Thomas Y. Crowell Co. New York City, 1946
43 page 236. Applebaum, Samuel and Applebaum, Sada. With the artists: world famed string players discuss their art. New York, 1956.
44 This was in an all Wagner concert in Carnegie Hall, February 1, 1948. The New York Times. New York. February 2, 1948.
45 page 241. Saleski, Gdal. Famous musicians of Jewish origin. Bloch Publishing Company. 1949
46 page 271. Malan, Roy. Efrem Zimbalist: a life. Hal Leonard Corporation. 2004 ISBN 1-5746-7091-3
47 page 230. Pablo de Sarasate. The Strad Magazine. Volume 68. Orpheus Publications Ltd. Middlesex, England. 1957.
48 page 121. Mousset, Edouard. Revue Generale. Editions Duculot. Bruxelles. June-July, 1989.
49 Page 41. Cincinnati Magazine. Cincinnati, Ohio. October, 1999
50 Tarbut Quarterly. America-Israel Cultural Foundation. Tel Aviv, Israel. 1971.
51 pages 104-111. Kenneson, Claude. Musical Prodigies: Perilous Journeys, Remarkable Lives. Amadeus Press. March 2003. ISBN-13: 9781574670462.
52 page 6. third section Eastman Chorus, Symphony The Syracuse Herald. March 27, 1927.
53 page 22. Klinzing, Ernestine M. Rochester History: Music in Rochester, A Century of Musical Progress 1825-1925 The Syracuse Herald. Volume 29 number 1. Rochester. January, 1962.
54 pages 322-323. Brayer, Elizabeth. George Eastman: A Biography. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore. 1996. ISBN: 1-58046-247-2
55 page 126. Stone, Desmond. Alec Wilder in spite of himself: a life of the composer. Oxford University Press. 1996. ISBN-13: 9780195096002
56 Slonimsky, Nicolas. Program Notes. Little Orchestra Society. New York. 1948.
57 Cedar Rapids Gazette - Cedar Rapids, Iowa. April 29, 1956.
58 Entertainment: The Brooklyn Daily Eagle.. Brooklyn, New York. October 1, 1922.
59 Raschella, John A Tribute to Frank Kaderabek: 42 Years of Great Music Making. International Trumpet Guild Journal. Manhattan, Kansas. December, 1996.
60 Rosenbaum, Samuel R. The Philadelphia Orchestra and Robin Hood Dell. Tempo Magazine. December, 1944.
61 page 451. Schwarz, Boris. Great Masters of the Violin. Simon and Schuster. New York. 1983. ISBN 0-671-22598-7.
62 page 9. Review: The New Century Quartet. New York Times. New York. November 21, 1902.
63 page 64. Wister, Frances Anne. Twenty-five years of the Philadelphia orchestra (1900-25) op. cit.
64 page 24. Philly (No Moonlighting) Sonata.. Billboard Magazine. New York. Volume 77 number 3. January 16, 1965.
65 page 71. Wister, Frances Anne. Twenty-five years of the Philadelphia Orchestra (1900-25) op. cit.
66 page 8. Some Principals in Great Orchestra. Iowa City Daily Press. Iowa City, Iowa. April 22, 1909.
67 page 11. Musical Chit-chat. Salt Lake Tribune. Salt Lake City, Utah. November 8, 1903.
68 page 14. Fritz Scheel Nervous Wreck. Trenton Evening Times. Trenton, New Jersey. February 9, 1907.
69 page 7. Fritz Scheel Dies. New York Times. New York. March 14, 1907.
70 Page 177. Kupferberg, Herbert. Those Fabulous Philadelphians. Charles Scribner's Sons. op. cit.
71 pages 260-262. Faust, Albert Bernhardt. The German Element in the United States.
72 Keffer Collection of Sheet Music. Philadelphia in Images: Portrait of Carl Sentz Library of the University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
73 pages 188-189. Mathews, W.S.B. Minor Mention: Thunder Orchestra. Music, A Monthly Magazine. June, 1900. Volume 17 number 2. Chicago, Illinois.
74 pages 98-107. Holland, J.G. The Old Germania Orchestra. Scribner's Monthly. 1875-1876. Volume 11 . New York.
75 page 56. Ryan, Thomas Recollections of an Old Musician. E. P. Dutton. New York. 1899.
76 pages 252-262. Currey, J. Seymour Chicago: Its History and Its Builders. S.J. Clarke Publishing. Chicago. 1910.
77 pages 34-43. MacTier, William L. Sketch of the Musical Fund Society of Philadelphia.. Musical Fund Society of Philadelphia. Philadelphia. 1885.
78 pages 806. Grove, Sir George. Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Volume 4..
79 pages 103-123. Hassen, Marjorie Hassen. Philadelphia's Musical Legacy. University of Pennsylvania. 2000.
80 pages page 248-248. Wister, Frances Anne. Twenty-five years of the Philadelphia Orchestra (1900-25) op. cit.
81 page 1. Stokowski Quits Phila. Orchestra. The Chester Times. Chester, Pennsylvania. January 2, 1936.
82 page 79. Ardoin, John, editor. The Philadelphia Orchestra, A Century of Music. Temple University Press. Philadelphia. 1999.
83 Eugene Ormandy - A Centennial Celebration. Otto E. Albrecht Music Library of the University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia. 2000-2003.
84 pages 156-162. Rosenberg, Deena and Bernard. The Music Makers.
85 Philharmonia Orchestra History. Philharmonia Orchestra website. 2009. http://www.philharmonia.co.uk/about/history
86 Music Section. Wakin, Daniel J. Muti Named New Director at Chicago Symphony. New York Times. New York. May 5, 2008.
87 Lebrecht, Norman. The Maestro Myth: Great Conductors in Pursuit of Power Citadel Press. New Jersey Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-2088-4.
88 Music Section. Wakin, Daniel J. and Povoledo, Elisabetta. La Scala Conflict Grows as Workers Ask Conductor to Quit. New York Times. New York. March 18, 2005.
89 page 14. Kurnick, Judith K. Riccardo Muti: Twenty Years in Philadelphia. University of Pennslyvania Press. Philadelphia. 1992. ISBN: 978-0-8122-1445-1
90 Heiles, Anne Mischakoff. Mischa Mischakoff, Journeys of a Concertmaster. Harmonie Park Press. Sterling Heights, Michigan. 2006. ISBN 0-89990-131-X.
91 pages 26-29. Kupferberg, Herbert. Those Fabulous Philadelphians. Charles Scribner's Sons. op. cit.
92 pages 32-33. Ardoin, John, editor. The Philadelphia Orchestra, A Century of Music. op. cit.
93 Wendling Quartet to Give Opening Concert Tomorrow. Harvard Crimson. Cambridge, Massachusetts. October 2, 1922.
94 Page 25, Music Section. Aldrich, Richard. The Wendling String Quartet. New York Times. New York. October 17, 1922.
95 Page 29, Music Section. Aldrich, Richard. Berkshire Music Festival Begins; Wendling String Quartet of Stuttgart, Germany Makes Its American Debut. New York Times. New York. September 29, 1922.
96 page 13. Symphony Orchestra will Give Concerts . Berkley Daily Gazette. Berkley, California July 7, 1937.
97 page 40. Van Den Burg Joins Faculty at Mills. Oakland Tribune. Oakland, California March 29, 1942.
98 page 22. Cellist to be Soloist Over KGO Tonight. Oakland Tribune. Oakland, California July 6, 1928.
99 page 5. Van Den Burg to Lead Symphony . San Mateo Times. San Mateo, California July 24, 1936.
100 page 24. Music Institute Plans Summer Program . The Valley News. Van Nuys, California May 18, 1971.
101 page 127. Canarina, John. Pierre Monteux, Maître. 2003. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN-13: 9781574670820.
102 page 28. The Violinist, Volume XXIV. Violinist Publishing Company. Chicago, IL. January, 1919.
103 page 23. The Horn Call, Volumes 1-3. International Horn Society. 1971.
104 American Consulate General Death of American Citizen. Genoa, Italy. November 18, 1974.
105 pages 24-25. Nathan, G. J. and Mencken, H. L. The Smart Set, Volume 65. New York, NY May, 1921.
106 page 2. Orchestra Principals All American Trained . Daytona Beach Morning Journal. Daytona Beach, Florida May 19, 1964.
107 Page 40. Inter-American Music Festival, Issue 2 Organization of American States, Inter-American Music Council. Washington, D.C. 1961.
108 page 348-349. Keim, Friedel. Das große Buch der Trompete. Schott Music. 2005. ISBN-13 978-3795705305.
109 Steinberg, David. Professor falls under flute's spell. Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque, New Mexico. May 2003.
110 Page 306. Toff, Nancy. Monarch of the Flute: Georges Barrère (1876-1944). op.cit.
111 Fair, Demetra Baferos Fair. Flutist Family Tree: In Search of the American Flute School. Ph.D. thesis Graduate School of Ohio State University. 2003.
112 page ii. Fair, Demetra Baferos Fair. Flutist Family Tree: In Search of the American Flute School . op. cit.
113 page 31. Geisler, Pat. Gifted flutist, resident artist at Oberlin has household of musicians. Elyria Chronicle Telegram. Elyria, Ohio. November 16, 1969.
114 page F-2. Robert Fries of Oberlin will blow the pipes for Scottish dancers. Elyria Chronicle Telegram. Elyria, Ohio. November 7, 1971.
115 page 205. Marckwardt, Albert H. Charles C. Fries. Linguistic Society of America. Ann Arbor, Michigan. 1968.
116 page 4. Twenty-fourth Annual Commencement and Conferring of Degrees. Curtis Institute of Music. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. May 11, 1957.
117 page 1. Philadelphia Orchestra Horn Section at NHW. New England Horn Society. Cornucopia Magazine. Concord, Massachusetts. February 2005
118 page 12. Music Club To Open Season . Huntingdon Daily News. Huntingdon, PA. October 7, 1947.
119 page 22. A Fine Concert . Oakland Tribune. Oakland, CA. September 9, 1895.
120 Franz Trenner, Franz, English Translation by Bernhard Bruechle. Der Vater: Franz Strauss aus der Neuen Zeitschrift fuer Musik. Gustave Bosse Verlag. Regensburg, Germany. 1955.
121 Morley-Pegge, R. The orchestral French Horn. Its origin and evolution. Ernest Benn Ltd., London. 1973.
122 page 22. by 'C.L.G.' Music . Manchester Guardian. Manchester, England. March 28, 1894.
123 page 14. by 'Musicus' Glasgow . London Musical Courier. London, England. October 15, 1896.
124 page 23. Marquardt Noted Soloist, Here for Summer . Colorado Springs Gazette. Colorado Springs. Colorado. June 21, 1914.
125 Dale, Maryclaire page 13. Philadelphia conductor to end career with Beethoven's Ninth . Altoona Mirror. Altoona, PA. May 10, 2003.
126 Rodríguez-Peralta, Phyllis White.; Chapter 3. Philadelphia Maestros: Ormandy, Muti, Sawallisch . Temple University Press. Philadelphia, PA. 2006. ISBN: 1-59213-487-4
127 Eschenbach, Christoph.; Christoph Eschenbach website.
128 page 32. Cooper, Stefan Trumpet Players of the San Francisco Symphony 1911-1995. International Trumpet Guild Journal. Manhattan, Kansas. February, 1996.
129 pages 226,227. Tarr, Edward H. Tarr, Carter, Stewart Carter, editors. East Meets West: The Russian Trumpet Tradition from the Time of Peter the Great to the October Revolution . Pendragon Press. New York, New York. March, 2004. ISBN-13: 9781576470282.
130 page 52. Philadelphia - Changes in the Orchestra. The Violinist, Volume 16. Chicago, Illinois. October, 1913.
131 page 109-110. Young, Nancy Beck, Pederson, William D., Dayne, Byron W. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shaping of American Political Culture. M.E. Sharpe. 2001. ISBN 0-7656-0620-8.
132 page 97-98. Pratt, Waldo Selden, editor. Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. The Macmillian Company. 1920.
133 page 107. Glinsky, Albert Theremin: Ether Music and Espionage. University of Illinois Press. Chicago. 2000. ISBN 0-252-02582-2.
134 page 3. Much Native Talent in New Music Casts. The Carbondale Free Press. Carbondale, Illinois. November 3, 1926.
135 Samuel H. Mayes, 73; Was Principal Cellist. New York Times. New York. September 1, 1990.
136 Schweitzer, Vivien. Curtis Institute’s New Leader Is Set to ‘Clear the Cobwebs’ . New York Times. New York. May 2, 2007.
137 McLellan, Joseph. Roberto Diaz and the Viola's Rich Color. The Washington Post. Washington D.C. September 13, 1988.
138 Loveland, Elaina. Merging Music and Academe. Hispanic Outlook of Higher Education. Paramus, NJ. October 2005.
139 Yancich, Milan. An Orchestra Musician's Odyssey: A View from the Rear. Wind Music, Inc. Rochester, NY. 1995.
140 page 239. Dwight, John Sullivan. First Triennial Festival of the Handel and Haydn Society. Dwight's Journal of Music. Volume 27-28. May 9, 1868.
141 Maxim Olefsky, 90, pianist, conductor. Chicago Sun-Times. Chicago, Illinois. December 26, 1989.
142 Gillespie, John and Anna. Notable Twentieth-century Pianists. Greenwood Press. Chicago, Illinois. 1995. ISBN-13: 9780313296956.
143 Chicago Symphony website, Rosenthal Archives, collected November, 2010. Former CSO Musicians. http://cso.org/uploadedFiles/8_about/History_-_Rosenthal_archives/former_musicians.pdf
144 page 5. Philadelphia Symphony Names Winnipeg Cellist. Winnipeg Free Press. Winnepeg, Manitoba. May 28, 1951.
145 page 4. Concertgoers Hear Prominent Cellist. Benton Harbor News-Palladium. Benton Harbor, Michigan. February 4, 1957.
146 pages 42-46. Harvison, Emory David Bilger: The New Face in Philly. International Trumpet Guild Journal. Manhattan, Kansas. February, 1995.
147 Kennicott, Philip. NSO Strings Fall Short in Tippett Work. The Washington Post. Washington D.C. December 3, 1999.
148 Obituary: John de Lancie Oboist who inspired Richard Strauss . The Independent. London, UK. May 28, 2002.
149 Page 7 Hugo Olk is Prominent. Burlington Hawk Eye. Burlington, Iowa. December 24, 1913.
150 Page 5 Music and Musicians. Trenton Times. Trenton, New Jersey. November 25, 1902.
151 Page 139. Rischin, Moses The Promised City . Harvard University Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts. May, 1977. ISBN-13: 9780674715011
152 Names Make News. Time Magazine. New York, New York. March 3, 1930.
153 Pages 10-21. Gunlogson, Elizabeth Stanley Hastey: His Life and Teaching. Florida State University College of Music thesis for DMus. Tallahassee, Florida. 2006.
153 Fried, Stephen. Norman Carol Bows Out. Philadelphia Magazine. August, 1994.
155 page 5 Joins Orchestra. Anderson Sunday Herald. Anderson, Indiana. October 13, 1957.
156 page 1. Annual Bach Festival in Phila. The Chester Times. Chester, Pennsylvania. May 22, 1945.
157 Philadelphia Scrapple. Time Magazine. New York, New York. April 10, 1939.
158 page 9. Famous Violinist Dead. Racine Daily Journal. Racine, Wisconsin. February 3, 1911.
159 474th Concert by Philad'a Musical Academy Faculty. Philadelphia Public Ledger. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. November 4, 1899.
161 page 4. Joseph Horner. Neuer Pennsylvanischer Staatsbote. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Fall 2010.
162 Storch, Laila. Marcel Tabuteau: How Do You Expect to Play the Oboe if you Can't Peetl a Mushroom?. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, Indiana. 2008. ISBN-13: 978-0-253-34949-1
163 page 823. The Kruse Quartet Party. Musical Times Novello, London. December 1, 1898.
164 pages 9-19. Tracy, Bruce. Orchestra Showcase: The Philadelphia Orchestra. ITA Journal. International Trombone Association. Volume XII number 3. July, 1984.
165 page 79. Danforth, Roy Harrison. Music News of the Weekend. Oakland Tribune. Oakland, California November 7, 1926.
166 page 2. L.A. Baroque Players in 6th Concert . Long Beach Press-Telegram. Long Beach, California January 7, 1956.
167 page 41. Tollefsen Trio at Seaside Club . Bridgeport Telegram. Bridgeport, Connecticut November 26, 1919.
168 page 8. Bauers, Sandra. Portrait of the Cellist. Daily Intelligencer. Doylestown, Pennsylvania. April 11, 1978.
169 page 158. Bierley, Paul. John Philip Sousa: American Phenomenon. Warner Brothers Publications. Miami, Florida. 2001. ISBN-13: 9780757906121.
170 page 4. Music. Traverse City Record-Eagle. Traverse City, Michigan. June 28, 1954.
171 page 4. Release Musician from Red Prision. The Chester Times. Chester, PA. July 14, 1941.
172 Caro, Mark. Musicians swap notes. Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. August 30, 2011.
173 page 8. Stephen Deak Tells of Plans for Symphony Orchestras First Season. Hagerstown Daily Mail. Hagerstown, Maryland. September 27, 1935.
174 page 8. Conductors Baton to be Wielded by Accomplished Musician. Hagerstown Daily Mail. Hagerstown, Maryland. November 12, 1935.
175 page 4. Oar Splinters. Lebanon Daily News. Lebanon, Pennsylvania. March 2, 1882.
176 page 8. Professor of Music Under Arrest. Ogden Standard. Ogden, Utah. February 19, 1909.
177 Edmond Roelofsma. New York Times. New York, New York. April 2, 1943.
178 page 38 Roens, Samuel. Billboard Magazine. New York, New York. May 15, 1954.
179 page 17. Dayo, Ray Radiocasting Today. Syracuse Herald. Syracuse, New York. October 12, 1928.
180 page 23. Blames Woman. Lowell Sun. Lowell, Massachusetts. February 20, 1909.
181 Flegler, Joel. Bernard Phillips. Fanfare Magazine. Volume 17 number 3. Tenafly, New Jersey. 1994.
182 Kennesy, W. Jay. Annual Organ Recital to be Held. Chester Times. Chester, Pennsylvania. April 24, 1945.
183 page 437. Heiles, Anne Mischakoff. America's Concertmasters. Harmonie Park Press. Sterling Heights, MI. 2007. ISBN-13 978-0-89990-139-8.
184 page 30. Ensemble Set. News Palladium. Benton Harbor, Michigan. August 24, 1966.
185 page 2. Concert Society of Upper Darby. The Chester Times. Chester, Pennsylvania. February 13, 1923.
186 page 5. Russian Orchestra Fails to Score. Indianapolis Star. Indianapolis, Indiana. July 10, 1911.
187 page 41. 'Papa' Schwar 71 Tympanist Dies. The Chester Times. Chester, Pennsylvania. November 28, 1946.
188 page 4. Society. Bath Independent and Enterprise. Bath, Maine. November 27, 1909.
189 Crown, Tom. Chicago Symphony Orchestra Trumpet Section 1902-1932. International Trumpet Guild Journal. Manhattan, Kansas. June, 2011.
190 Chicago Orchestra's Loss. New York Times. New York, New York. April 1, 1898.
191 Sorensen, Sterling. Stage, Screen In Madison. Capital Times. Madison, Wisconsin. January 5, 1941.
192 page 15. Jan Savitt, Noted Bandman Dies. Long Beach Independent. Long Beach, California. October 5, 1948.
193 Amend, J. Jerome. Correction To: Trumpet Sections of American Symphony Orchestras: The Philadelphia Orchestra. International Trumpet Guild Journal. Manhattan, Kansas. April, 2004.
194 Kozinn, Allan. Marilyn Costello, 72, Harpist For the Philadelphia Orchestra. New York Times. New York. January 19, 1998.
195 St. George, Donna. Henry Schmidt, 90; Was Violinist, Personnel Manager For Orchestra. Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. July 30, 1988.
196 Dobrin, Peter. Isadore Schwartz, 86, Phila. Orchestra retiree. Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. April 13, 2001.
197 Zingel, Hans Joachim, Palkovic, Mark editor and translator. Harp Music in the Nineteenth Century. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, Indiana. 1992. ISBN-13: 9780253368706.
198 Randel, Don Michael. Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1996. ISBN-13: 9780674372993.
199 page 3. The Coming Musical Event. Logansport Journal. Logansport, Indiana. April 15, 1893.
200 page E5. Recitals of the Week. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, New York. March 11, 1928.
201 page 10. Four Women to be Heard Here with the Philadelphia Orchestra. Montreal Gazette. Montreal, Quebec. May 14, 1938.
207 Wakin, Daniel J. and Walsh, Mary. Other Orchestras Fear Paying Price for Philadelphia Pension Crisis. New York Times. New York. November 30, 2011.
208 Kennedy, Randy. Bankruptcy Court Gives Blessing to Philadelphia Orchestra Reorganization. New York Times. New York. June 28, 2012.
209 McManus, Drew. Adaptistration: Drew McManus on the Orchestra Busienss. October 13, 2011.
210 Wakin, Daniel J. and Norris, Floyd. Philadelphia Orchestra Makes Bankruptcy Move. New York Times. New York. April 17, 2011.
211 Wakin, Daniel J. Details Emerge of an Orchestra’s Bankruptcy Plea. New York Times. New York. April 20, 2011.
212 page 16. Philadelphia Orchestra Appoints Two New Executives. Doylestown Intelligencer. Doylestown, Pennsylvania. March 20, 2012.
213 Allison Vulgamore appointed President and CEO of the Philadelphia Orchestra Association. Telecommunications Weekly. NewsRX. Farmington Hills, Michigan. October 14, 2009.
214 page 82. The Palace Warned. Oakland Tribune. Oakland, California. November 12, 1922.
215 page 125. Canarina, John. Pierre Monteux, Maître. op.cit.
216 page 7. Claremont Quartet to Be Heard at Delhi Tech. Oneonta Star. Oneonta, New York. April 13, 1961.
217 page 5. Concert Series Ticket Drive Now Under Way. Fairbanks Daily News. Fairbanks, Alaska. September 11, 1959.
218 page 8. Popular Lecture Course. Salem Daily News. Salem, Massachusetts. October 26, 1889.
219 Weait, Christopher. The New Symphony Orchestra; Toronto Symphony Orchestra; the Toronto Symphony. A master list of personnel 1922-1972. Toronto, Canada. 1972.
220 Philadelpha Orchestra press release. Glenn Janson. Philadelphia Orchestra Association. March 18, 1997. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
221 page 2. The Philadelphia Orchestra. Washington Post. Washington, DC. October 23, 1904.
222 page 14. Cincinnati Zooological Gardens. Variety. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1906.
223 page 1. Rumson Orchestra to Give Final Concert . Red Bank Journal. Red Bank, New Jersey. April 17, 1941.
224 page 10. Women Musicians Will Appear With Philadelphians At U of A . Tucson Daily Citizen. Tucson, Arizona. May 14, 1957.
225 Dobrin, Peter. Erez Ofer Will Leave Orchestra Sooner Than Was Expected. Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. February 19, 1998.
226 Dobrin, Peter. V. Reynolds, 78, Violinist And Teacher. Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. February 10, 2000.
227 Panaritis, Maria. Julius Schulman, 84, Former Phila. Orchestra Violinist. Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. September 13, 2000.
228 Dobrin, Peter. Another Philadelphia Orchestra Principal Player Leaves. Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. February 2, 2012.
229 Boston Symphony Programme Notes 1917-1918. Boston Symphony Association Boston, Massachusetts. 1918.
230 Jacobs, Walter. pages 18-24. Famous Bandmasters: Frank R. Seltzer. Jacobs' Band Monthly. Boston, Massachusetts. volume 6. January, 1921.
231 page 80. Gowen, Bill. Bobby Knights of the Podium Dont Work Out. Chicago Daily Herald Chicago, Illinois. April 19, 2002.
232 page 7. Claremont Quartet to Be Heard at Delhi Tech. Oneonta Star. Oneonta, New York. April 13, 1961.
233 page 3. Philly Orchestra Out of Bankruptcy. Bedford Gazette. Bedford, Pennsylvania. 1 August 2012.
234 What PBGC Guarantees Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. http://www.pbgc.gov/wr/benefits/guaranteed-benefits/maximum-guarantee.html.
235 Dobrin, Peter. Philly orchestra gives new contract to Allison Vulgamore. Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1 March 2012.
236 Dobrin, Peter. Philadelphia Orchestra players OK tentative contract with deep cuts. Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 13 October 2011.
237 page 4. Jackson Heights Symphony Formed. Long Island Daily Star. Queens, New York. 6 July 1931.
238 charcoal sketches by Bettina Steinke. The NBC Symphony Orchestra. National Broadcasting Company New York, New York. 1938.
239 page 5. Antonin Blaha, Violinist. Cedar Rapids Evening Gazette. Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 2 April 1904.
240 Stearns, David Patrick. New chamber group makes a splendid debut. Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 21 September 2013.
241 page 1. Concerts, Recitals. London Standard. London, England. 4 June 1910.
242 page 33. Merry Music Echoes at the Fair. Portland Oregonian. Portland, Oregon. June 4, 1905.
243 page 5. World Famous Musician to Play Solos. Sheboygan Press. Sheboygan, Wisconsin. 4 June 1919.
244 page 11. Radio Programs. Fayetteville Daily Democrat. Fayetteville, Arkansas. 10 June 1931.
245 page 7. Monsieur and Madame Vergnaud. Uniontown Morning Herald. Uniontown, Pennsylvania. 13 June 1928.
246 Dobrin, Peter. Orchestra Settles Suit Leveled by Musician. Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 22 February 1996.
247 page 17. Worthy Musical Group. The Pittsburgh Press. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 12 February 1942.
248 page 7. Harry Zaratzian. New York Times. New York. 19 July 2013.
249 page 33. Southwestern Debut of Quartet. Scottsdale Progress. Scottsdale, Arizona. 4 May 1973.
250 page 78. Music Here and There. New York Times. New York. June 2, 1912.
251 Tarr, Edward H. (Stewart Carter, editor). East Meets West: The Russian Trumpet Tradition Historical Brass Society Series number 4. Pendragon Press, 2004. ISBN-13 978-1576470282.
252 Clark, Vernon. Herschel Gordon, 82, of Abington, cellist. Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 10 July 2010.
253 page 260. Riggs, Robert. Leon Kirchner: Composer, Performer, and Teacher. Boydell & Brewer, Limited. London, UK. 2010. ISBN-13: 9781580463430.
254 page 5. Critics Acclaim String Ensemble to Play Here. The Tuscaloosa News. Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 25 November 1938.
255 page 244. Cummings, David M. International Who's Who in Music and Musician's Directory. Taylor & Francis. London, UK. 2000. ISBN-13: 9780948875533.
256 page 1. Musician Here From War Zone. Valparaiso Porter County Vidette. Valparaiso, Indiana. 12 September 1917.
257 page 6. Champouillon, David. International Trumpet Guild Journal. Manhattan, Kansas. May 1999.
258 page 3. Isador A. Bransky. Gettysburg Times Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. 12 January 1968.